Discrimination and stereotyping essays - essays on citizenship


 

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discrimination and stereotyping essays

discrimination and stereotyping essaysDiscrimination and stereotyping essays -These statements imply that unity is humankind's natural condition, and that prejudice and discrimination are not part of the natural order.It implies a rejection of past conceptions, and "blind imitations" of a fragmented world.Contemporary forms of prejudice and discrimination date back to when European colonizers penetrated and transformed previously isolated societies and peoples.Whether or not prejudice is shown depends on the social context within which behavior takes place.If you saw me in the streets and I told my background, you’d probably think I’m lying.Society looks most often to education and legislation to alleviate prejudice and discrimination--for reasons still not clearly known, intergroup contact alone is not enough to reduce prejudice (Klineberg, 1968: 441).Attempts to eradicate prejudice and discrimination must thus deal with prevailing beliefs or ideologies, and social structure.At the same time, norms change over time, so this can only go some way towards explaining prejudice.1993 [check].) The private sphere may indeed be the last frontier where a solution to the problems of prejudice may have to be found.Definition Concept Name Judgments based on positive and negative perceptions of a social group Prejudice Reacting to a person as though he or she was an indistinguishable member of a particular social group (Biases) Category-based Acting on cognitive expectations and emotional reactions to a person's perceived membership in a particular social group Sterotyping (Comparative fit) Bias affirms the satisfaction of belonging to the right groups; individual autonomy is balanced against group identity.The rejection of these "blind imitations" requires, according to Shoghi Effendi (ADJ: 33-34), "ceaseless exertions," "sacrifice," "care and vigilance," "moral courage and fortitude," and "tact and sympathy." Racism in America, for example, should be regarded as constituting the "most vital and challenging issue" facing its Bahá'í community (ADJ: 33-34).Conforming to social norms means people adopt the “normal” set of behavior(s) associated with a particular group or society.Prejudice is an unjustified or incorrect attitude (usually negative) towards an individual based solely on the individual’s membership of a social group. Discrimination is the behavior or actions, usually negative, towards an individual or group of people, especially on the basis of sex/race/social class, etc.If you’ve ever been the victim of a stereotype, which is a good probability, you know that they can cause you to do unnecessary things.In the Bahá'í view, the dominant groups are unable or unwilling to see discrimination "as a chronic social, psychological, and spiritual illness," while subjugated groups have a "deep-seated mistrust, suspicion, and bitterness" (Racial Unity: 96).A study by Rogers and Frantz (1962) found that immigrants to Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) became more prejudiced the longer they had been in the country.(In a similar vein, one cannot eradicate evil except by ensuring the presence of goodness.) At best, one can reduce prejudice and discrimination.Also, prejudice includes all three components of an attitude (affective, behavioral and cognitive), whereas discrimination just involves behavior.Similarly, he accounted for the higher levels of prejudice against black people in the southern United States than in the north in terms of the greater social acceptability of this kind of prejudice in the south.If you don’t already know, a stereotype is a generalization that is usually exaggerated or oversimplified and is often offensive to distinguish a group.discrimination and stereotyping essaysThe internalization of prejudice starts with parents and, later, teachers--the groups primary in the formation of attitudes within children.Evaluation: Conformity to social norms, then, may offer an explanation for prejudice in some cases.He investigated the idea that people who tended to be more conformist would also be more prejudiced, and found this to be true of white South African students.Shoghi Effendi offers advice when members of inequal groups have decided to strive towards unity when he suggests that no "trace of mistrust, no sense of superiority, no mark of discord and aloofness should characterize" their relations (Power of Unity: 76).Prejudice and Discrimination in a Historical Context.Results: Below ground, where the social norm was friendly behavior towards work colleagues, 80 of the white miners were friendly towards the black miners. Prejudice is a cultural attitude that rests on negative stereotypes about individuals or groups because of their cultural, religious, racial, or ethnic background.The truth is, stereotypes give us ideas and push us to believe things that aren’t true.For example, a person may hold prejudiced views towards a certain race or gender etc. The Difference Between Prejudice and Discrimination A prejudiced person may not act on their attitude.The centuries of unequal relationships between dominant and minority groups have, of themselves, compound the difficulty of eradicating prejudice and discrimination.People always ask me if I’m a terrorist or if I know any when I first meet them. The word terrorist means someone who causes terror or frightens others.Just because someone is of a certain ethnicity or religion, that doesn’t mean you can stereotype into groups.Optimal Distinctiveness Theory Bringing about the behavior in others that a biased perceiver expects Self-Fulfilling Prophecy The degree to which one accepts a hierarchy in which some groups rightfully have a commanding influence over others Social Dominance Hierarchy Similar to fundamental attribution error, as applied to groups Ultimate Attribution Error Attributing negative encounters with others to membership in a stigmatized group or others' biases against the stigmatized group to which one belongs Attribution Ambiguity Biases assigned to a person without intention, awareness, effort, or control, often based on subliminal cues Automatic bias Economic, political, military, or prestige-related threats to ingroup advantage that result in negative intergroup reactions Realistic group conflict theory Applying one’s cognitive expectations and associations about a group to a person Cognitive bias (stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination are examples) Prejudice that is cool, indirect, automatic, unconscious, unintentional, and often gives reason for the perceiver to deny any bias Subtle prejudice Legitimizing current social arrangements, even at the expense of the individual or the group System justification An explanation for a judgment that is used to excuse one's actual bias Ambiguous Bias Overt, explicit forms of bias that emphasize belonging to an…...Pettigrew (1959) also investigated the role of conformity in prejudice.Conclusion: The white miners were conforming to different norms above and below ground.Social norms - behavior considered appropriate within a social group - are one possible influence on prejudice and discrimination.A category can be based on sex, ethnicity, nationality, religion, language, or class.Because of stereotypes, we don’t have quality of life. This is one of the main reasons people do not get along with each other and why people are separated by what they look like or by ethnic background.`Abdu'l-Bahá states that humanity "is one kind, one race and progeny," and that in "the creative plan [of God] there is no racial distinction and separation." Such separation is a cultural artifact, "not natural and original" (PUP: 118).If we abolish all stereotypes we will finally be able to enjoy life without hate and without conflict. discrimination and stereotyping essays The most overlooked area in resolving the problems of prejudice and discrimination lies in the web of close relationships where genuine feelings of love can be fostered and strengthened (Robert Henderson, American Bahá'í, Nov.For Bahá'ís, the Bahá'í community, both in its internal relationships and in its relationship to the wider world, offers an optimal environment to eradicate prejudice and discrimination. There are several elements of Bahá'í communities that foster the removal of prejudice and discrimination from individual and collective life.There is ample evidence that prejudice and discrimination are social constructions.The chances are that if you stereotype someone more than once and mean it that could push them to do something irrational.Klineberg (1968: 440) asserts that "[p]rejudice and ethnic hostilities constitute a major danger to peace both within a nation and among nations." As a consequence, the emergence of a new global moral order increasingly provides a leverage point to counter the effects of prejudice and discrimination.Most people are affected by stereotypes and really don’t know it.In Western societies while women are often discriminated against in the workplace, men are often discriminated against in the home and family environments.Yet, no one really accepts that and there is still segregation everywhere, whether it’s religious or ethnicity wise.There are four main explanations of prejudice and discrimination: Apartheid (literally "separateness") was a system of racial segregation that was enforced in South Africa from 1948 to 1994.They could make you lash out in rage or even confront that person face to face.For instance after a divorce women receive primary custody of the children far more often than men.On the other hand, the emphasis on civil rights, enlightened immigration policies, and mandates for quota hiring are the cornerstone of legal approaches to alleviating the effects of prejudice and discrimination.I have pretty light skin and no one would ever guess that I’m a Muslim or even Arab.From the Bahá'í perspective, it is religion that gives humanity its capacity to remove prejudice and discrimination.Just as it is humanity's capacity to create prejudice and discrimination, it is also within its capacity to eradicate them.Prejudice and discrimination are deeply imbedded at both the individual and societal levels.Some groups appear to suffer from more persistent forms of discrimination, such as Jews (as in anti-Semitism) and the Roma (a.k.a. As to the root cause of prejudice and discrimination there appears to be no clear acceptance of any theory of causation.There is, moreover, considerable evidence that prejudice is absent in young children (e.g. Although there is no wide agreement as to the "cause" of prejudice and discrimination, there is a consensus that they constitute a learned behavior.On one hand, multicultural education, whether direct or indirect, constitute the mainstay of educational efforts to eliminate prejudice.While many agree that the various international instruments to protect people against prejudice and discrimination are still not universally followed or even implemented, it is clear that a new international consciousness is indeed emerging and is, in fact, intensifying. The belief in the unity of humankind constitutes the fundamental premise through which the Bahá'í revelation deals with the question of prejudice and discrimination. discrimination and stereotyping essays Non-white people where prevented from voting and lived in separate communities.What can be said of the nature of such relationships among whites and blacks in the United States, seems to also apply to other groups around the world.There is really no person in this whole world that isn’t affected by stereotypes.More recently, disadvantaged groups now also include those based on gender, age, and physical disabilities.Her are some examples of stereotypes: • Every Arab is a terrorist • Every Hispanic person is Mexican • Every white American is rich • Every white Southerner is racist • All Blondes are stupid • Every Hispanic person in America is an illegal immigrant • Every German is a Nazi • Every British person has messed up yellow teeth These are only a few of the harmful stereotypes that are out there in the world.Without religion, according to `Abdu'l-Bahá, we "may be able to realize some degrees of fraternity ...America was built on the whole idea of “freedom” and “freedom of religion”.Without the recognition of the spiritual nature of the problem, long-term transformation will not occur and social progress of both dominant and subjected groups will be retarded.Influences that cause individuals to be racist or sexist, for example, may come from peers parents and group membership.The behavior of black and white miners in a town in the southern United States was observed, both above and below ground.Stereotypes are hurtful and most of the time untrue.What effects enduring transformation and progress is recognition of Bahá'u'lláh's divine call for the recognition of the unity of humankind.Imagine this: A middle aged man who is a hard worker and finished college with a degree in management.He applies for a job as a gas station manager for a major gas station company. This is because he’s Arab and comes from a country that America is at war with.They gradually conformed more to the prevailing cultural norm of prejudice against the black population.While human diversity has historically proven to be the basis of separation, the Bahá'í writings view diversity as an essential ingredient of global life, which should be appreciated within the context of humanity's essential oneness.but these are limited associations and subject to change.When human brotherhood is founded upon the Holy Spirit, it is eternal, changeless, unlimited" (PUP: 392). The root cause of prejudice and discrimination, according to the Bahá'í writings, lies in the accretion of blind imitation of the past.Discrimination is the active denial of desired goals from a category of persons.In a sense, it is incorrect to speak of "eradicating" prejudice, since prejudice is learned. discrimination and stereotyping essays Contemporary forms of prejudice and discrimination date back to when European colonizers penetrated and transformed previously isolated societies and peoples. discrimination and stereotyping essays




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