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best and worst essaysBest and worst essays -Whenever you bring technology into the requirements modeling effort, such as a drawing tool to create “clean” versions of use case diagrams or a full-fledged CASE tool, you make it harder for your project stakeholders to participate because they now need to not only learn the modeling techniques but also the modeling tools. When your agile team is geographically distributed, finds itself addressing a complex domain, or finds itself in a regulatory compliance situation which requires more permanent artifacts, then you will need to consider capturing key information in software-based modeling tools (SBMTs) as well.Figure 1 presents a high-level view of the requirements process, using the notation for UML activity diagrams, indicating the tasks that developers and project stakeholders are involved with.An important issue is that your project stakeholders are actively involved in the modeling effort, a fundamental culture change for most organizations.Figure 4 overviews the agile approach to managing requirements, reflecting both Extreme Programming (XP)'s planning game and the Scrum methodology.Make your project stakeholders aware of the real costs and benefits and let them decide - after all, a traceability matrix is effectively a document and is therefore a business decision to be made by them.If you accept the AM principle Maximize Stakeholder ROI, if you're honest about the TCO of traceability matrices, then they often prove to be superflorous.In this case you see that both project stakeholders and developers are involved with identifying ideas or suggestions, discussing a potential requirement, and then modeling and potentially documenting it.Many of the requirements artifacts listed in Table 1 below can be modeled using either simple or complex tools - a column is included to list a simple tool for each artifact. Of course, the challenge with such models is their impermanence.At this level the requirement is still technology independent, but if you drill down into it to start listing the components of the existing infrastructure, such as your Sybase v X. Z database or then need to integrate with a given module of SAP R/3, then you've crossed the line.We are ready to develop unique papers according to your requirements, no matter how strict they are.Do not force artificial, technical jargon onto your project stakeholders. Tell a few jokes, and keep your modeling efforts light.Our experienced writers are professional in many fields of knowledge so that they can assist you with virtually any academic task.However, I also cringe when I hear about people talk about Platform Independent Models (PIMs), part of the doomed Model Driven Architecture (MDA) vision from the Object Management Group (OMG).You cannot follow the practice Active Stakeholder Participation if your stakeholders are unable to work with the appropriate modeling techniques.Too many projects are crushed by the overhead required to develop and maintain comprehensive documentation and traceability between it.Furthermore, if a continuous integration strategy is in place it may be simple enough to make the change and see what you broke, if anything, by rebuilding the system.You never know, maybe some day someone will help nurture your business skills and help you to make the jump out of the technical world.For example, a common constraint for most projects is to take advantage of the existing technical infrastructure wherever possible.Traceability is the ability to relate aspects of project artifacts to one another, and a requirements traceability matrix is the artifact that is often created to record these relations - it starts with your individual requirements and traces them through any analysis models, architecture models, design models, source code, or test cases that you maintain.End users, either direct or indirect, aren't your only stakeholders.best and worst essaysThe implication is that you need to gather requirements in exactly the same manner.By taking a breadth-first approach you quickly gain an overall understanding of your system and can still dive into the details when appropriate. of 1,027 projects showed that scope management related to attempting waterfall practices, including detailed, up-front requirements, was cited by 82 percent of failed projects as the number one cause of failure.We value excellent academic writing and strive to provide outstanding essay writing services each and every time you place an order.I have seen project stakeholders model and document their requirements quite effectively in small start-up firms, large corporations, and government agencies.When delegating your work to one of our writers, you can be sure that we will: If your deadline is just around the corner and you have tons of coursework piling up, contact us and we will ease your academic burden.My expectation is that because agile software development efforts have a greater emphasis on stakeholder involvement than previous software development philosophies we will see this phenomena occur more often - keep a look out for people wishing to make this transition and help to nurture their budding development skills.My philosophy is that if your project stakeholders are unable or unwilling to participate then that is a clear indication that your project does not have the internal support that it needs to succeed, therefore you should either address the problem or cancel your project to minimize your losses.In reality there's lots of really good ideas out there with much better ROI, surely the CCB members could find something more useful to do, and there aren't any CMMI police so don't worry about it.As with any culture change, without the support of senior management you likely will not be successful.To make it easier for project stakeholders to be actively involved with requirements modeling and documentation, to reduce the barriers to entry in business parlance, you want to follow the practice Use the Simplest Tools.Luckily AM includes practices such as Create Several Models in Parallel, Iterate To Another Artifact, and Model In Small Increments which enable evolutionary modeling.Few organizations are ready for the MDA, so my advice is to not let the MDA foolishness distract you from becoming effective at requirements modeling.Figure 6 shows how agile teams typically have someone in a stakeholder representative role, this role is called in Scrum, whom they go to as the official source of information and prioritization decisions. I'm a firm believer that requirements should be technology independent.If you do this then any change to a requirement you're currently implementing should be treated as just another new requirement. This approach is also supported by the Disciplined Agile Delivery (DAD) process framework (unlike other agile frameworks DAD doesn't prescribe a single way to manage work/requirements). This is where your team will spend the majority of its time.The implication is that you're going to need to recognize that you're in this situation and then act accordingly.TDD promotes confirmatory testing of your application code and detailed specification of that code.Most of all, we are proud of our dedicated team, who has both the creativity and understanding of our clients' needs.With refactoring you evolve your design via small steps to ensure that your work remains of high quality.Think very carefully before investing in a requirements traceability matrix, or in full lifecycle traceability in general, where the traceability information is manually maintained.Customer tests, also called agile acceptance tests, can be thought of as a form of detailed requirements and developer tests as detailed design. best and worst essays Scrum suggests that you freeze the requirements for the current iteration to provide a level of stability for the developers. It's interesting to note that lean teams are starting to take a requirements pool approach to managing requirements instead of a stack, as you see in Figure 5. During development it is quite common to model storm for several minutes and then code, following common Agile practices such as Test-First Design (TFD) and refactoring, for several hours and even several days at a time to implement what you've just modeled.This is why we need to go beyond TDD to consider AMDD.This works well for the development team, but essentially places the burden on the shoulders of this person. I cringe when I hear terms such as object-oriented (OO) requirements, structured requirements, or component-based requirements.Likewise, developers are responsible for estimating the effort to implement a requirement because they are the ones that will be doing the actual work - it isn't fair, nor advisable, to impose external estimates on developers.My experience is that when a project team doesn't have adequate access to project stakeholders that this is by choice. That must have come from some form of project stakeholder, so they clearly exist.You will need support from both the managers within you IS (information system) department and within the user area.Our experts create writing masterpieces that earn our customers not only high grades but also a solid reputation from demanding professors.Active Stakeholder Participation is a core practice of Agile Modeling (AM).They are the ones that the system is being built for, therefore, it is their terminology that you should use to model the system. An important artifact on many projects is a concise glossary of business terms. People will have a better time and will be more productive in a “fun” environment.For further reading, see the Agile Requirements Change Management article. A UML activity diagram overviewing the requirements engineering process.Other stakeholders include managers of users, senior managers, operations staff members, the "gold owner" who funds the project, support (help desk) staff members, auditors, your program/portfolio manager, developers working on other systems that integrate or interact with the one under development, or maintenance professionals potentially affected by the development and/or deployment of a software project. These people aren't going to agree with one another, they're going to have different opinions, priorities, understandings of what they do, understandings of what others do, and visions for what the system should (or shouldn't) do.Yes, this requires some training, mentoring, and coaching by developers but it is possible.They are the ones that know what they want and they can be taught how to model and document requirements if you choose to do so.The most effective documentation is just barely good enough for the job at hand.The quick answer is in some agility at scale situations and when you have proper tooling support: In short, I question manually maintained traceability which is solely motivated by "it's a really good idea", "we need to justify the existence of people on the CCB" (it's rarely worded like that, but that's the gist of it), or "CMMI's Requirements Management process area requires it".They're also easier to prioritize and therefore manage.We write essays, research papers, term papers, course works, reviews, theses and more, so our primary mission is to help you succeed academically.We guarantee the authenticity of your paper, whether it's an essay or a dissertation.The terms OO, structured, and component-based are all categories of implementation technologies, and although you may choose to constrain yourself to technology that falls within one of those categories the bottom line is that you should just be concerned about requirements. All of the techniques that I describe below can be used to model the requirements for a system using any one (or more) of these categories.Take an agile approach to documentation and keep it lean and effective. best and worst essays What does it mean for a project stakeholder to actively participate?Sometimes you must go away from the ideal of identifying technology-independent requirements.The team takes the highest priority requirements from the top of the stack which they believe they can implement within the current iteration.Our writers always follow your instructions and bring fresh ideas to the table, which remains a huge part of success in writing an essay.Agile teams do the majority of their detailed modeling in the form of executable specifications, often customer tests or development tests. Because your model storming efforts enable you to think through larger, cross-entity issues whereas with TDD you think through very focused issues typically pertinent to a single entity at a time.Figure 2 and Figure 3 present two inclusive models created using simple tools, Post It notes and flip chart paper was used to model the requirements for a screen/page in Figure 2 (an essential UI prototype) and index cards were used for conceptual modeling in Figure 3 (a CRC model). When you're a co-located or near-located team (everyone is pretty much in the same building) then it's viable to have paper-based or whiteboard based models.By keeping it simply you encourage participation and thus increase the chances of effective collaboration. My experience is that it is better to paint a wide swath at first, to try to get a feel for the bigger picture, than it is to narrowly focus on one small aspect of your system." approach to modeling where you invest significant time gathering and documenting requirements early in the project, review the requirements, accept and then baseline them before implementation commences. This is backed up by other research - according to Jim Johnson of the Standish Group when requirements are specified early in the lifecycle that 80% of the functionality is relatively unwanted by the users.Although prioritization and estimation of requirements is outside the scope of AM, it is however within the scope of the underlying process such as XP or UP that you are applying AM within, it is important to understand that these tasks are critical aspects of your overall requirements engineering effort.There are two issues that need to be addressed to enable this practice - availability of project stakeholders to provide requirements and their (and your) willingness to actively model together.The benefits of having such a matrix is that it makes it easier to perform an impact analysis pertaining to a changed requirement because you know what aspects of your system will be potentially affected by the change.However, detailed specification is only part of the overall picture - high-level specification is also critical to your success, when it's done effectively.Having said that, people are interested in best practices so here they are when it comes to agile requirements modeling: When you are requirements modeling the critical practice is Active Stakeholder Participation.Investing the effort to model requirements, and in particular applying agile usage-centered design techniques, are new concepts to many organizations.This sounds like a great idea, in theory, but the reality is that this approach is spectacularly ineffective. He The point is that you can do a little bit of initial, high-level requirements envisioning up front early in the project to understand the overall scope of your system without having to invest in mounds of documentation.In simple situations, which many agile teams find themselves in, my experience is that traceability matrices are highly overrated because the total cost of ownership (TCO) to maintain such matrices, even if you have specific tools to do so, far outweigh the benefits.However, in simple situations (e.g with small co-located teams addressing a fairly straightforward situation) when you have one or more people familiar with the system, then it is much easier and cheaper to simply ask them to estimate the change.By doing this, you can focus more of your energy on building working software, and isn't that what you're really being paid to do?Project stakeholders are solely responsible for prioritizing requirements, the system is being built for them therefore they are the ones that should set the priorities.In short, just like any other type of work product, you should have to justify the creation of a traceability matrix. Take a few minutes to explain what they are, why you are using them, and how to create them. best and worst essays An important issue is that your project stakeholders are actively involved in the modeling effort, a fundamental culture change for most organizations. best and worst essays




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