Discovering voice integrated inquiry-based learning and critical thinking - essays on citizenship


 

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discovering voice integrated inquiry-based learning and critical thinking

discovering voice integrated inquiry-based learning and critical thinkingDiscovering voice integrated inquiry-based learning and critical thinking -The professor serves as coach, counselor and mentor; the students become active participants in learning.On Monday 20 November, between - GMT, we’ll be making some site updates.Regardless of the definition, an early indication of the widespread popularity of online courses can be found in a survey conducted by the U. Department of Education, which revealed that more than 54,000 online courses were being offered in 1998, with over 1.6 million student's enrolled (Lewis, et al., 1999).Therefore, the traditional professor-centered educational environment and student-centered online educational environment will have many differences.Thus , ensuring academic honesty and integrity in online courses is another challenge for instructors.This article will examine new challenges and barriers for online instructors, highlight major themes prevalent in the literature related to quality control or assurance in online education, and provide practical strategies for instructors to design and deliver effective online instruction.This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills. Therefore, besides being a facilitator, the instructor should also be an instructional designer (Zheng & Smaldino, 2003).There are six major categories of cognitive an processes, starting from the simplest to the most complex (see the table below for an in-depth coverage of each category): The categories can be thought of as degrees of difficulties. In addition, they added another level of knowledge - metacognition: . Consequently, how to appropriately use technology to serve an instructional purpose tends to be another challenge for online education instructors.Many people are suspicious of online education because courses are often offered by divisions of extended studies or continuing education (Husmann & Miller, 2003) and are taught by adjunct faculty or instructors who have not earned doctoral degrees.Recommendations will be made on how to prepare instructors for quality online instruction.Therefore, many individuals have concluded that online education programs are left outside of formal faculty structures that have traditionally had oversight for instructional course quality.While arguments have been made in opposition to online education, there are proponents who are in support of this mode of instruction.The authors also indicated some of the new technologies may be used in tomorrow's online instruction are push technologies and data channels, audio chat and voice over Internet protocol, hand-held and wireless technologies, and peer-to-peer file sharing.This paper will examine new challenges and barriers for online instructors, highlight major themes prevalent in the literature related to quality control or assurance in online education, and provide practical strategies for instructors to design and deliver effective online instruction.Key Words: applies, changes, computes, constructs, demonstrates, discovers, manipulates, modifies, operates, predicts, prepares, produces, relates, shows, solves, uses Technologies: collaborative learning, create a process, blog, practice Examples: Troubleshoot a piece of equipment by using logical deduction. Gathers information from a department and selects the required tasks for training. Key Words: appraises, compares, concludes, contrasts, criticizes, critiques, defends, describes, discriminates, evaluates, explains, interprets, justifies, relates, summarizes, supports Technologies: survey, blogging Examples: Write a company operations or process manual. Integrates training from several sources to solve a problem. Key Words: categorizes, combines, compiles, composes, creates, devises, designs, explains, generates, modifies, organizes, plans, rearranges, reconstructs, relates, reorganizes, revises, rewrites, summarizes, tells, writes Technologies: Create a new model, write an essay, network with others Bloom's Revised Taxonomy not only improved the usability of it by using action words, but added a cognitive and knowledge matrix. Donlevy (2003) asserted that online education may help schools expand curricula offerings with less cost and can help graduates gain important technology skills to improve their marketability.Instead, they should be able to identify and recognize the strength and weakness of technologies, and select the most appropriate delivery mechanism for their lessons (Gunawardena, 1992, as cited in O'Quinn & Corry, 2002).discovering voice integrated inquiry-based learning and critical thinkingIntroduction With a growing number of courses offered online and degrees offered through the Internet, there is a considerable interest in concerns and problems associated with online education, particularly as it relates to the quality of online instruction (Allen & Seaman, 2003).You’ll still be able to search, browse and read our articles, but you won’t be able to register, edit your account, purchase content, or activate tokens or eprints during that period.Murihead (2000) indicated three areas considered to be changed when courses are put online: (a) the provision of instructional and emotional support to students, (b) the expectations associated with authoring online courses while maintaining a full teaching load, and (c) the requirement to provide ongoing technological support to students and parents (p. According to Ascough (2002), the role of instructor in an online learning environment should be more of a facilitator or moderator due to less control of the class environment.During the processes of learning, in teacher-centered classroom, professor lectures while students take notes.In online education, the interaction between students and their instructors have been changed from synchronous in face to face (F2F) instruction to an asynchronous virtual community.Online education can also promote students' critical thinking skills, deep learning, collaborative learning, and problem-solving skills (Ascough, 2002; Rosie, 2000).Concerns regarding the quality of online education are also raised by both students and faculty.The concerns expressed by those teachers Murihead interviewed may also partially relate to other online educators' complaints, relative to the lack of direct teacher supervision of online learning and testing.More recently, Allen and Seaman (2003) in conducting a survey on online education delivered by higher education institutions in the United States defined an online course as one that had at least 80 % of the course content delivered online.The factors include a lack of professional prestige, delivery method used, change in faculty role, and lack of monetary support.Palloff and Pratt (1999) have concluded that because students cannot tell the race, gender, physical characteristics of each other and their teachers, online education presents a bias-free teaching and learning environment for instructors and students.Faculty should learn how to use technology, but not completely rely on the technologies.In online student-centered education, the professor serves as the facilitator, while students collaborate with each other in order to develop personal understanding of course content.Some opponents even question the quality of online courses when students do not actually attend a college, and have face-to-face interaction with instructors.Moreover, Allen and Seaman (2003) in their study on online education reported that: (a) over 1.6 million students took at least one online course during the Fall of 2002, (b) over one-third of these students (578,000) took all of their courses online, (c) among all U. higher education students in Fall 2002, 11 percent took at least one online course, and (d) among those students at institutions where online courses were offered, 13 percent took at least one online course (p. Background of the Problem Controversies as to the quality of online education have not diminished over the past decade.Ascough (2002) suggested that online education has the following features: (a) it provides a learning experience different than in the traditional classroom because learners are different, (b) the communication is via computer and World Wide Web, (c) participation in classroom by learners are different, (d) the social dynamic of the learning environment is changed, and (e) discrimination and prejudice is minimized.Hughes (2004) has suggested that online learners should ask themselves, Am I ready for university (or college)? The online learning should be viewed as more cognitive or internally oriented.According to Twigg (2001) many problems that arise from online education as it relates to quality include, but is not limited to: (a) the requirement of separate quality assurance standards, (b) programs having low (or no) quality standards, and (c) there being no consensus on what constitutes learning quality.O'Quinn & Corry (2002) in conducting a study on online education delineated several factors that may deter faculty from teaching online.Abstract With a growing number of courses offered online and degrees offered through the Internet, there is a considerable interest in online education, particularly as it relates to the quality of online instruction. discovering voice integrated inquiry-based learning and critical thinking Students must move from being a more traditional passive classroom learner into a more active online inquirer. Do I have the skills to be successful in my chosen program? Their findings suggest that students do see a difference in the learning process and a need for their role adjustment.Volery (2000) also suggested that the academic role of instructor should be shifted from intellect-on-stage and mentor towards a learning catalyst because the level of interaction has changed in online delivery.Wu and Hiltz also found that in traditional professor-centered education, the roles of professor and student are regimented; the professor disseminates knowledge, and the student reflects that information.However, Bloom's taxonomy is easily understood and is probably the most widely applied one in use today. Schools or universities that offer online courses typically do not provide comparative information for students.Moreover, because of the needs of different interaction methods to be employed, changes are also needed in the interpersonal relations between the instructor and students (Bower, 2001).Arguments are made that as consumers of online education, students are unlikely to be able to find out information about the quality of the courses that are provided (Twigg, 2001).Proponents also argue that online education can encourage non-discriminatory teaching and learning practices since the teachers and students, as well as students and their classmates typically do not meet face-to-face.Apply laws of statistics to evaluate the reliability of a written test. Instructors have many concerns about online education.How to interact with online learners is always a challenge for instructors.However, as Knowton (2000) has argued, in the student-centered online education course, the professor and students are a community of learners.They suggest that the lack of face-to-face interaction can be substituted by online discussions in bulletin board systems, online video conferences or on listservs (Blake, 2000).Mc Alister, Rivera, & Hallam (2001) raised another concern about the difficulty of ascertaining the students' identity when communicating over the Internet.Opponents view online education as inferior, see it as a substitute for the traditional brick and mortar university, and conclude that it is a rather profit making venue.While the committee produced an elaborate compilation for the cognitive and affective domains, they omitted the psychomotor domain.Also, because managing electronic course materials, student participation, student achievement, and course evaluations can be problematic (Schott et al., 2003), interaction with students appears to be more important for online instructors on encouraging students self-directed, disciplined, and self-motivated.Moreover, Weiger (1998) asserted that the quality of instructors who teach online courses cannot be guaranteed since anyone can put a course online.This type of delivery is often viewed by administrators as a cash cow'-a means of delivering instruction to a large number of paying customers without the expense of providing things such as temperature controlled classrooms and parking spaces (Brown & Green, 2003, p. Opponents have also suggested that online courses lower the quality of academic standards (Buck, 2001).Since the work was produced by higher education, the words tend to be a little bigger than we normally use. Instructional designers, trainers, and educators often refer to these three categories as KSA (Knowledge [cognitive], Skills [psychomotor], and Attitudes [affective]). discovering voice integrated inquiry-based learning and critical thinking Since face to face instruction is usually eliminated in online classes, instructors may lack sufficient information on how well learners actually perform.Online education is widely accepted as student-centered education, and the traditional education is regarded as professor-centered education.Volery (2000) further noted that online delivery is a form of distributed learning enabled by the Internet.Moreover, prerequisites that are essential for taking a particular online course are usually not clearly stated on course websites for students, and when students are encountering technical problems, whom they can ask for assistance is not available to them (Twigg, 2001,p. Regardless the opinions of proponents and opponents, instructors need to seriously consider what they can do and should do to provide quality online instruction students deserve.Wu and Hiltz (2004) conducted a study of 116 students enrolled in two undergraduate courses and one graduate course at the New Jersey Institute of Technology.Thus, a significant role adjustment for students may be required if they are to experience success. Garrison, Cleveland-Innes, and Fung (2004) conducted a study to validate an instrument regarding online students' role adjustment.Muirhead (2000) reported teachers' frustration with the reliability of computer technology, working with multiple versions of a software package, providing technology support to students using multiple operating systems, and the absence of mature integrated content development tools.The divisions outlined are not absolutes and there are other systems or hierarchies that have been devised, such as the Structure of Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO). Graphics for Learning : Proven Guidelines for Planning, Designing, and Evaluating Visuals in Training Materials . That is, the first ones must normally be mastered before the next one can take place. Their primary concern is how online education changes their roles and responsibilities, and how they can adapt to this change.The cognitive domain involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills (Bloom, 1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. How will effective communication and interaction be established with students in the absence of face-to-face instruction?However, there have been at least three psychomotor models created by other researchers.Besides their role shifting, the role of the virtual instructor is to select and filter information for student consideration, to provide thought-provoking questions, and to facilitate well-considered discussion (Kettner-Polley, 1999).Based upon the findings in this study, the authors concluded that variations among instructors or courses are associated with differences in perceptions of student motivation, enjoyment and learning.Their compilation divides the three domains into subdivisions, starting from the simplest cognitive process or behavior to the most complex.The new version of Bloom's Taxonomy, with examples and keywords is shown below, while the old version may be found here Examples: Recite a policy. Explain in one's own words the steps for performing a complex task. Key Words: comprehends, converts, defends, distinguishes, estimates, explains, extends, generalizes, gives an example, infers, interprets, paraphrases, predicts, rewrites, summarizes, translates Technologies: create an analogy, participating in cooperative learning, taking notes, storytelling, Internet search Examples: Use a manual to calculate an employee's vacation time. Online learners must take more responsibility, adjust to a new climate, adjust to new context, synthesize ideas, know how to participate, synthesize ideas, apply ideas or concepts, and stimulate their own curiosity.He noted that because most instructors are more likely to have been trained in traditional instruction, it is a somewhat foreign practice for them to plan interactive strategies in course delivery, and adjusting their change in role from the leading speaker to that of a facilitator.How will students' learning outcomes be assured and improved in online learning environment? discovering voice integrated inquiry-based learning and critical thinking Regardless of the definition, an early indication of the widespread popularity of online courses can be found in a survey conducted by the U. Department of Education, which revealed that more than 54,000 online courses were being offered in 1998, with over 1.6 million student's enrolled (Lewis, et al., 1999). discovering voice integrated inquiry-based learning and critical thinking




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