Essay on city of bones - essays on citizenship









essay on city of bones

essay on city of bonesEssay on city of bones -(Long clavicles and narrow iliac wings contribute to "well-built" in a man, but leanness and muscularity override these.) Stature, of course, is entirely the result of bone growth (and, in age, of bone deterioration).Don't rely on this, and don't go calling every relatively dark sclera "blue").They are easy to tell apart using polarized light; after age 3, woven bone indicates pathology.Special thanks to my friend and colleague, Charles Wheeler M. If you're a private individual who's enjoyed this site, and want to say, "Thank you, Ed!Stature is mostly genetic; you know the effects of poor nutrition, chronic disease, h GH excess and deficiency, and osteogenesis imperfecta; precocious puberty will first make you taller than your peers, then your epiphyses close and you may end up shorter in the long run.PROCALLUS: Fibrin / granulation tissue bump forming from the hematoma at the fracture site. CALLUS: Granulation tissue bump at the fracture site that is starting to turn into fibrous tissue and cartilage, from which healed bone will arise.Michael Kutza opened his 1975 Chicago International Film Festival at the Uptown, at Broadway and Lawrence, by showing with Jack Nicholson, who was at the height of his fame. The lobby before the show was vibrating with excitement. It was nominated for nine Oscars and was the first film in 41 years to sweep the categories of best picture, director, actor, actress, and screenplay.Welcome to Ed's Pathology Notes, placed here originally for the convenience of medical students at my school.When a discovery proves to square with the observable world, scientists make reputations by confirming it, and corporations are soon making profits from it.They laughed, they cheered, they applauded individual lines, and Nicholson did what Hitchcock said a movie was supposed to do—he played the audience like a piano. Some landmarks have been restored: the Chicago, the Oriental, the Bismarck (now the Cadillac Palace).Bone is decalcified prior to histologic sectioning, but bone that was calcified is less homogeneously dense-pink than bone that was never calcified ("osteoid").I never refuse requests from colleagues for permission to adapt or duplicate it for their own courses... Perspectives on Disease Cell Injury and Death Accumulations and Deposits Inflammation Fluids Genes What is Cancer?Most of these diseases are autosomal dominant (usually fairly mild) or autosomal recessive (usually severe). In the severe, autosomal-recessive variants, the skull becomes so deformed from the disease itself and the extramedullary hematopoiesis that the foramina for the optic and other cranial nerves are compromised.You know bone supports you, protects you, and stores your calcium and phosphorus.Teaching Cases SUNY Histopathology West Virginia Case of the Month Society for ultrastructural pathology -- electron microscope cases Pathology Pics -- where pathologists share favorite images. Web Path: Internet Pathology Laboratory -- great site My team: Also: -- my cyberfriends, great for current news and browsing for the general public Enjoy Path -- a great resource for everyone, from beginning medical students to pathologists with years of experience Medmark Pathology -- massive listing of pathology sites Estimating the Time of Death -- computer program right on a webpage Pathology Field Guide -- recognizing anatomic lesions, no pictures Freely have you received, freely give. My site receives an enormous amount of traffic, and I'm still handling dozens of requests for information weekly, all as a public service. D., left a legacy of realism and social conscience for the discipline.Shortly afterwards, the physician who "discovered" this went to court for making stuff up (Br. In severe cases, (1) the bones become very brittle (think -- it's easier to crack something solid than something porous); (2) the patient is likely to die of neutropenia or anemia; (3) the bone impinges on the cranial nerves.You know osteoblasts in their rows making the super-densely-woven collagen that is osteoid, osteocytes in their lacunes (hard to study, but not inert), multinucleated (usually; 3-20 nuclei) osteoclasts with ruffled contact surfaces in their Howship's lacunes / resorption pits / resorption bays, compact cortical bone, spongy cancellous bone, the flat endosteal cells that line bone (osteoblasts that did not become osteocytes), and so forth. (This is why the orthodontist can straighten teeth, and how you replace your entire skeleton each decade.) You also know that unmineralized bone is called OSTEOID, which is mostly densely-woven type I collagen, with some vitamin K dependent calcium-binding proteins mixed in. ("Trabeculum" isn't a dictionary word, though you'll hear is used as a singular.) * The great mystery of how osteoblasts and osteoclasts cooperate so that there will be just the right amount of bone is on its way to being solved.These majestic palaces would cost unimaginable amounts today, but those still standing are, as you can see, falling into ruin.Two days: Soft tissue edema is usually gone Four days: Periosteal new bone formation beginning Ten days: Fracture line no longer visible; soft callus present Fourteen days: Hard callus present Twenty-one days: Callus is all hard Ninety days: Bone has remodelled * Orthopedic nails and screws placed into bone become separated from the bone itself by organized connective tissue continuous with the periosteum. Although the vast majority of osteogenesis imperfecta mutations result from mutations in the type I collagen gene, there's a recessive form resulting from a mutated protein (CRTAP) required for the post-translational hydroxylation of proline (NEJM Except for type IV, all feature distinctive blue sclerae.They are found in remodeled bone at the border where new bone meets old, and are probably there to absorb impacts and make it harder to fracture the bone.essay on city of bonesBusy osteoblasts make osteoprotegerin, which interferes with the interaction by soaking up the RANK-L.I cannot diagnose or treat over the web, I cannot comment on the health care you have already received, and these notes cannot substitute for your own doctor's care. Sometimes I get backlogged, sometimes my E-mail crashes, and sometimes my literature search software crashes.Eventually becomes BONY CALLUS and then remodels to look more or less like the original bone.This will impart a longstanding yellow color and distinct fluorescence to the seam.I am an outspoken enemy of all the make-believe and bunk that interfere with peoples' health, reasonable freedom, and happiness. Throughout these notes, I am speaking only for myself, and not for any employer, organization, or associate. D., who wrote me encouragement when we were both beginning our unusual medical careers.Since it takes about two weeks to mineralize osteoid well, wide osteoid seams beneath the osteoblasts mean bone is being laid down fast or not being mineralized.CLOSED (SIMPLE) FRACTURE: The overlying tissues are intact OPEN (COMPLICATED) FRACTURE: The bacteria have a route from the surface to the bone; perhaps the bone is even sticking out the wound.When things are more sedate, the new bone is laid down as LAMELLAR BONE, with collagen fibers nearly parallel, which takes longer to make but is much stronger.Rickets is rampant in the United States thanks to bad diets (junk food, quackery, ill-informed vegetarians) and avoiding sunlight, and it is now common for the hyperplasia seen at the costochondral junctions to be mistaken for "healing fractures" by "physician child-abuse experts" (Acta Paed.The osteoblasts are also responsible for beginning the process of mineralization, but this can't be the whole story, since a row of osteoblasts typically overlies an unmineralized "osteoid seam", which then takes about two weeks to be mineralized under the influence of the same cells.The Ken Kesey novel was a cult favorite, but no one in the audience had any idea what to expect, and only the cineastes would then have known the name of its Czech director, Milos Forman. To call that screening a success would be a cruel understatement. But Hollywood was in the throes of takeover by a new generation. I ran into Michael Douglas afterward, surrounded by admirers in the lobby.", then what I'd like best is a contribution to the Episcopalian home for abandoned, neglected, and abused kids in Nevada: I've spent time there and they are good. My home page More of my notes My medical students Especially if you're looking for information on a disease with a name that you know, here are a couple of great places for you to go right now and use Medline, which will allow you to find every relevant current scientific publication.The best-known incomplete fracture is the fast-healing GREENSTICK FRACTURE from an impact to a child's supple long bone.PSEUDARTHROSIS: The ends of the bone did not heal back together with bone.You owe it to yourself to learn to use this invaluable internet resource.Cancer: Causes and Effects Immune Injury Autoimmunity Other Immune HIV infections The Anti-Immunization Activists Infancy and Childhood Aging Infections Nutrition Environmental Lung Disease Violence, Accidents, Poisoning Heart Vessels Respiratory Red Cells White Cells Coagulation Oral Cavity GI Tract Liver Pancreas (including Diabetes) Kidney Bladder Men Women Breast Pituitary Thyroid Adrenal and Thymus Bones Joints Muscles Skin Nervous System Eye Ear Autopsy Lab Profiling Blood Component Therapy Serum Proteins Renal Function Tests Adrenal Testing Arthritis Labs Glucose Testing Liver Testing Porphyria Urinalysis Spinal Fluid Lab Problem Quackery Alternative Medicine (current) Preventing "F"'s: For Teachers!I am a mainstream Christian, a man of science, and a proponent of common sense and common kindness.You also know that extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence.Cyberfriends: The help you're looking for is probably here.Rich people have been giving their sons growth hormone to make them taller for over two decades -- there has been no obvious harm. essay on city of bones If you get your sex hormones late (or never -- XXY's for example), you're likely to be tall.If you ask me about something like this, I will simply invite you to do some tests yourself, perhaps as a high-school science project. Perhaps it'll be you who makes the next great discovery!The slim CEMENT LINES (blue on H&E) that you may see in bone have a little less collagen and a little more other stuff.MULTIFRAGMENTED FRACTURE (formerly "comminuted fracture"): The bone is broken into several pieces.(Future radiologists: In kids, look for sawtooth rib-cartilage junctions in both deficiencies.) Most Americans are vitamin D deficient by the classic standards; With today's fad diets, especially when forced on children (and they are, even some of the incredibly stupid ones), you are likely to run into serious diet-related bone disease.Alternative (complementary) medicine has made real progress since my generally-unfavorable 1983 review.Bisphosphonates (which suppress osteoclast function / induce osteoclast apoptosis) for osteogenesis imperfecta: After some early flops, finally success.In vitamin D deficiency (rickets / osteomalacia), osteoid fails to mineralize.If you are looking for something on complementary medicine, please go first to the American Association of Naturopathic Physicians. here are some of my old pathology exams for medical school undergraduates.When a decades-old claim by a "persecuted genius" finds no acceptance from mainstream science, it probably failed some basic experimental tests designed to eliminate self-deception.NEJM osteogenesis imperfecta osteogenesis imperfecta, blue sclera osteogenesis imperfecta type II osteogenesis imperfecta type II osteogenesis imperfecta, x-ray osteogenesis imperfecta, sutures not present * Osteogenesis imperfecta must be ruled out in children with fractures attributed to abuse. The riddle is what to do with a kid with a mild mutation and a situation that still looks like inflicted injury.of Alabama; includes a digital library Pathopic -- Swiss site; great resource for the truly hard-core Alabama's Interactive Pathology Lab Chilean Image Bank -- General Pathology -- en Español Chilean Image Bank -- Systemic Pathology -- en Español Connecticut Virtual Pathology Museum Australian Interactive Pathology Museum Semmelweis U., Budapest -- enormous pathology photo collection Loyola Dermatology History of Medicine -- National Library of Medicine KU Pathology Home Page -- friends of mine The Medical Algorithms Project -- not so much pathology, but worth a visit Telmeds -- brilliant site by the medical students of Panama (Spanish language) U of Iowa Dermatology Images U Wash Cytogenetics Image Gallery Urbana Atlas of Pathology -- great site Visible Human Project at NLM Karolinska Institutet -- pathology links Johns Hopkins CPC's Oklahoma Teaching Cases Indiana U.Seen in osteoporosis, cancer, osteogenesis imperfecta, others.If you need me, send me an E-mail at scalpel_blade@Your confidentiality is completely respected. I send my most challenging questions to the medical student pathology interest group, minus the name, but with your E-mail where you can receive a reply.Likewise, poorly-nourished people or osteoporotic people are likely to get bad results.At best, there is fibrous scar connecting the ends, and a "false joint" is created.They are lined by a simple layer of bone-lining cells; old reports that they were not lined resulted from these being missed after the lesions were curetted out.Not only will you find some information immediately, but you'll have references to journal articles that you can obtain by interlibrary loan, plus the names of the world's foremost experts and their institutions.You can spot dead bone under the microscope because there are no osteocytes in the lacunes.All collagen is "woven", but here the term has a special meaning. essay on city of bones It's actually the estrogens that close the epiphyses: Lancet : 1723, 2001, which is why we give an aromatase inhibitor (to prevent estrogen synthesis) when we treat boys with constitutional delayed puberty.Various anomalies of bone formation are a radiologist's and geneticist's fascination.Whenever I hear the names of these wonderful places, I remember one of the most unforgettable moviegoing experiences I’ve ever had.The endosteum (quiet bone-lining) cells make RANK-L, a membrane-bound protein factor that binds to RANK on osteoclast precursors and turns them into osteoclasts.In the meantime, nothing that I can say or do will convince such people that I am a decent human being. During the eighteen years my site has been online, it's proved to be one of the most popular of all internet sites for undergraduate physician and allied-health education.You can label the osteoid that mineralized today by administering tetracycline.* Allogenic stem cells to enhance bone healing: Impressive animal study, no immunosuppression required J. (The "blue" color results from the translucence of the collagen. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on to any third party, unless required by law. I have no sponsors and do not host paid advertisements.If the fracture is multifragmented, if the ends of the bones are much displaced, or if infection happens, don't expect good healing.Sometimes the independent thinkers prove to be correct, and paradigms shift as a result.A missing phalanx or even radius isn't particularly disabling.I cannot examine every claim that my correspondents share with me.Public Database of Human Cancers -- World Health Organization Stanford Surgical Pathology Criteria -- probably the best resource for the practicing surgical pathologist in an increasingly difficult specialty Medscape Pathology -- mostly clinical medicine, the best "daily news" of the medical world Pathology Resident Wiki Human Pathlogy -- growing resource Surgical Pathology Atlas -- lots of photos Pathology Education Instructional Resource -- U.In vitamin C deficiency (scurvy), osteoid fails to form.PATHOLOGIC FRACTURE: Due to intrinsic disease of the bone; the force would not have broken a normal bone.When osteoblasts are working (growth, healing fractures, bone disease), they produce extra alkaline phosphatase, which shows up in the serum.* Bone "cysts" are uncommon but do occur, usually as fluid-filled round cavities near active growth plates.When bone is being made rapidly (unborn child, healing injury, some diseases), collagen fibers tend to be laid down as crisscross WOVEN BONE, made rapidly and able to withstand stress equally well in all directions.This usually isn't difficult; today, the full panel of labs seems to be urine organic acids, serum amino acids, vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, ceruloplasin/copper for Wilson's (seems far-fetched), and (to diagnose osteogenesis imperfecta), sequencing of the COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes (Clin. I used to be asked about "temporary brittle bone disease" and after examining the evidence, decided that I don't believe in it. This family of genetic diseases features progressive obliteration of the marrow cavity by bone because the osteoclasts don't work.COMPLEX FRACTURE: A curious term for a fracture in which the ends of the bone fragments have done serious damage to the surrounding tissue. essay on city of bones They are easy to tell apart using polarized light; after age 3, woven bone indicates pathology. essay on city of bones

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