Essay about global poverty - essays on citizenship









essay about global poverty

essay about global povertyEssay about global poverty -Such conflict can also lead to severe human rights violations, including genocide, torture, and slavery.Public decision-making should respond to the will of the citizens, and members of the society should have the opportunity to participate in the formulation, execution, and monitoring of state policies.In the most extreme cases of maldistribution, some individuals suffer from poverty while the elite of that society live in relative luxury.[7] Such injustice can stem from unfair hiring procedures, lack of available jobs and education, and insufficient health care.When injustices are committed in the initiation or the conduct of warfare, retribution is typically accomplished through international courts or tribunals that carry out war crimes adjudication.However, such restoration cannot take place unless it is supported by wider social conditions and unless the larger community makes restorative processes available. America has always had laws providing for the poor.In many cases, lack of access to basic services stems from enormous inequalities in resource distribution.The various responses include: While it is difficult to give a complete and adequate definition of justice, most observers can recognize clear examples of serious injustice when they arise.[1] Such injustice comes in various forms, wherever the norms of distributive justice, procedural justice, or human rights are violated.These causes have to do with underdevelopment, economic pressures, various social problems, and international conditions.[11] Indeed, the roots of repression, discrimination, and other injustice stem from deeper and more complex political, social, and economic problems.This is often accomplished through the strengthening of the economy and civil society in conjunction with democratization efforts.Addressing political injustice is often a matter of developing institutions of fair governance, such as an accountable police force and judiciary.A central goal of responding to injustice is paving the way for future peace.All of these conditions may lead individuals to believe that they have not received a "fair share" of the benefits and resources available in that society.Most believe that government officials should be held accountable for institution policies of apartheid, forced disappearance, torture, or genocide.Only then can the underlying causes of injustice be remedied. War crimes inquiries and truth commissions can aid in the process of memory and truth telling and help to make public the extent to which victims have suffered. Many scholars and activists note that in order to truly address injustice internationally, we must strive to understand its underlying causes.Addressing systemic economic injustice is often a matter of economic reforms that give groups better access to jobs, health care, and education.Conservatives today sometimes make the same mistake that liberals make about America’s past.It is commonly recognized that government leaders and soldiers, as well as civilians, must be held accountable for perpetrating such injustices.essay about global povertyMany note that an adequate response to injustice must involve social structural changes, reconstruction programs to help communities ravaged by conflict, democratization and the creation of institutions of civil society. Economic injustice involves the state's failure to provide individuals with basic necessities of life, such as access to adequate food and housing, and its maintenance of huge discrepancies in wealth.Did Americans before the 20th century lack compassion for the poor?If the subordinate group believes that it lacks the power to change things through political or diplomatic means, it may conclude that the only effective way to pursue justice is through violent confrontation.[10] However, such confrontations tend to produce even more injustice.Such breaches are typically brought to the attention of international tribunals or tried in an international court.Otherwise, such interventions are likely to simply cause more injustice.There are various ways to address political or economic injustice and respond to violations of human rights.In cases where some groups are excluded from political participation, the state can remedy violations of political rights by promoting political inclusion and empowering subordinate groups.When neglect of economic rights stems from the destruction caused by protracted conflict, countries may require outside aid to remedy injustice and avoid future instability.Huge advances are made when governments tell the truth about past atrocities carried out by the state.[19] It is thought that true healing requires remembering the atrocities committed, repenting, and forgiving. [8] Alex Moseley, "Just War Theory," in The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2001) [on-line] available at: accessed January 30, 2003. 5 (1998) [on-line] available from Humanitarian.html, accessed on January 30, 2003. It is only by understanding and ameliorating these root causes and strengthening civil society that we can truly protect human rights.Severe violations of basic rights to life and physical safety are sometimes enacted through government policies or inflicted during the course of warfare.Restoration often becomes a matter of restitution or war reparations. When the procedure in question has to do with employment or wages, such issues can lead to serious economic and social problems.There are various ways to address the political, economic and social injustices mentioned above.As conditions escalate in violence and more individuals are taken prisoner, tortured, or executed, it becomes more difficult to resort to the legal path.[14] Some maintain that the vigilant observance of the international community is necessary to ensure justice.[15] Various nongovernmental organization (NGOs), including Amnesty International and the International Commission of Jurists, are devoted to bringing injustice to light and pressuring governments to address the injustice.It can play a crucial role in responding to severe human rights violations or cases of genocide. [14] Michel Veuthey, "International Humanitarian Law and the Restoration and Maintenance of Peace." 7, no. Weiss et al.(Canada: International Development Research Centre, 2001), 136. When political or legal institutions fail to protect individuals' fundamental rights and liberties, members of the unjustly treated group feel disempowered.[9] They are likely to view the institutions that impose such conditions as unjust, and thus find themselves in the midst of a justice conflict.Restorative Justice is concerned with healing wounds of victims and repairing harm done to interpersonal relationships and the community. (No longer available as of March 5th 2013) [13] Gustavo Palma Murga, "Promised the Earth: Agrarian Reform in the Guatemalan Socio-Economic Agreement," (Conciliation Resources, Accord, 1997) [on-line] available at accessed on January 30, 2003. Reinforcing this impression, Burns goes on to say that “American conservatism has its roots in the political thinking of John Adams, Alexander Hamilton, and many of their contemporaries…. essay about global poverty International humanitarian law has been enacted to preserve humanity in all circumstances, even during conflicts.In some cases, conflicts can end more peacefully when parties acknowledge their guilt and apologize than when formal war crimes adjudication or criminal proceedings are used. Therefore, violence is often an ineffective way of addressing injustice, and many believe that it should be used only as a last resort.Historically, the United Nations has likewise played a central role in dealing with international justice issues.Those in power sometimes use the state's legal and political systems to violate the political, economic, and social rights of subordinate groups.[3] Political injustice involves the violation of individual liberties, including the denial of voting rights or due process, infringements on rights to freedom of speech or religion, and inadequate protection from cruel and unusual punishment.[4] Such injustice often stems from unfair procedures, and involves political systems in which some but not others are allowed to have voice and representation in the processes and decisions that affect them.[5] This sort of procedural injustice can contribute to serious social problems as well as political ones.When breaches occur, the perpetrators must somehow be brought to justice.In addition, there are various social structural changes that might give groups more social, economic, and/or political power.Redistribution of benefits and resources can thus be an important component of social structural changes to remedy injustice.In addition, because the dominant group typically has more power to inflict harm, such struggles often fail.According to the notion of retributive justice, past acts of injustice or wrongdoing warrant punishment.Many maintain that massive violations of human rights, such as genocide and crimes against humanity, warrant military intervention.In cases of civil war, because the line between offenders and victims can become blurred, a central goal of peacebuilding is to restore the community as a whole. When breaches do occur, they are brought to the attention of international tribunals or a war crimes tribunal.The real difference between the Founders’ welfare policies and today’s is over , government should help those in need. The question is: What policies help the poor, and what policies harm them?There are various institutional and economic development reforms that might be put in place to raise living standards and boost economic growth.In some cases countries require outside assistance for election monitoring, nation-building programs and the development of governmental infrastructure to make their political system more stable.Various international committees are in place to monitor compliance with human rights standards and report any violations.In other cases, human rights violations form part of national policy.Repentance can also help to re-establish relationships among the conflicting parties and help them to move toward reconciliation. Few students ever learn that government-funded welfare, not to mention generous private charity, has existed throughout American history. essay about global poverty Human needs, they say, can and should be taken care of by charities.”[2] Larry Berman and Bruce Murphy’s college textbook gives a similar slant: “While poverty has existed in the United States since the early colonial days, it first reached the public agenda in the early 1900s as a result of the writings of muckraking journalists.”[3] If poverty “first reached the public agenda” only then, readers are likely to conclude that government did nothing about it before that time.In other words, a culture of political involvement and public participation should be fostered.However, international law and adjudication is often insufficient to address grave injustice.Whether a response proves to be appropriate and effective depends on the nature of the grievance.However, there are also systemic forms of injustice that may persist in a society.Most conservatives opposed New Deal programs and the War on Poverty in the 1960s….If voting or litigation procedures, for example, are perceived to be unjust, any outcome they produce is liable to be unstable and produce conflict.[6] In addition, any procedures that are carried out in a biased manner are likely to contribute to problems of religious, ethnic, gender, or race discrimination.These traditions and structures give rise to profound injustices that can be difficult to recognize.[2] In some cases, these unfair conditions are imposed by the ruling party itself, whether it is an authoritarian government or an outside aggressor.In addition, by creating social and economic safety nets, states can eliminate tension and instability caused by unfair resource allocation.These crimes violate individuals' most basic rights to life and physical safety.Issues of distributive justice are in this way central to any that aims at economic vitalization and rebuilding post-war economic systems.During wartime, individuals sometimes perform acts that violate the rules of just war set forth in international law.Many believe that measures aimed at restorative justice are well-suited for this task. [12] "Reconciling Social Policy and Economic Reform," an Interview with Domingo Cavallo by the Center for International Private Enterprise, Economic Reform Today, [on-line] available at E22.htm, accessed on January 30, 2003. Some actions, such as theft and murder, are commonly recognized as unjust by governments and prohibited by domestic law.In cases where clear acts of injustice have taken place, some type of compensation package can help to meet the material and emotional needs of victims and remedy the injustice. Such measures are sometimes a matter of reforming state institutions or revising state constitutions.Such responses can be substantive or procedural, and seek both to remedy the harm caused and bring the perpetrators to justice.That is the impression given by most high school and college textbooks.However, this sort of response is limited, because governments are often reluctant to commit military forces and resources to defend human rights in other states.[17] In addition, the use of violence to end human rights violations poses a moral dilemma insofar as such interventions may lead to further loss of innocent lives.[18] It is imperative that the least amount of force necessary to achieve humanitarian objectives be used, that intervention not do more harm than good, and that it be motivated by genuine humanitarian concerns.Reacting to what they regard as the excesses of the modern welfare state, conservatives tend to assume that poor relief in early America was entirely private. essay about global poverty In the most extreme cases of maldistribution, some individuals suffer from poverty while the elite of that society live in relative luxury.[7] Such injustice can stem from unfair hiring procedures, lack of available jobs and education, and insufficient health care. essay about global poverty

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