Critical thinking lesson plans college - essays on citizenship









critical thinking lesson plans college

critical thinking lesson plans collegeCritical thinking lesson plans college -A man has not everything to do, but something; and because he cannot do everything it is not necessary that he should do something more right than his neighbors constitutes a majority of one already." 1.As for adopting the ways which the state has provided for remedying the evil, I know not of such ways.They then evaluate the reasons and draw their own conclusions. Promoting critical thinking through dialogical-thinking reading lessons.Just as the former asks for a systematic, disciplined effort to believe a point of view no matter how unfamiliar or ridiculous it may seem, so the latter invites students to engage in a systematic, disciplined effort to inquire into or doubt a point of view no matter how familiar and reasonable it may seem. Are they feeling and thinking somewhat differently than they were originally? Following a discussion of such questions and as a conclusion to their work, students can subject themselves and the issue they have examined to some written analysis. " The Fourth reached out an eager hand, And felt above the knee: "What most this wondrous beast is like Is mighty plain," quoth he; "'Tis clear enough the Elephant Is very like a tree!They think that, if they should resist, the remedy would be worse than the evil.Get Close to Think Deeply: Creating Primary-Level Close Readings (Gr.9-12)This lesson eases students’ fear of interpreting complex poetry by teaching them a strategy with which they determine patterns of imagery, diction, and figurative language in order to unlock meaning.We argue eagerly for our own opinions; we listen to opposing arguments mainly to find flaws and, when we do, interrupt and attack them. (g) Rigor in the process of question analysis is essential.It is therefore useful to use instead the term "report," which may be defined as a verifiable statement that excludes judgmental language but that may or may not be factually accurate. Close Reading of Literary Texts (6-12)This strategy guide will help you choose text that is appropriate for close reading and to plan for instruction that supports students’ development of the habits associated with careful, multi-engagement reading of literary prose and Alan Shapiro "If people don't obey the law, you can't have a decent society." "But what about people like Gandhi and King? The debate exhausts the period, and when the bell rings, students continue to argue as they leave the room. The debate has produced strong disagreement, some reasonable arguments, and lots of heat.The believing game is the first step in a critical thinking process. For example: Is there any law you know of that at least some US officials regard as unjust? (Students might know that Senators Mc Cain and Feingold have sponsored legislation to correct what they regard as unjust campaign finance laws.) Have such officials done anything to remedy this situation? Obviously, pursuing answers to such questions will take time.For example: Do you believe it is ever right, as a matter of conscience, to deliberately break a law you regard as unjust? They need to work hard at believing as much of the argument as they can. They should try to suppress the inclination to disagree. Divide the class into small discussion groups for 10-15 minutes. In what sense or under what conditions might this idea be true? How can you know if the person has these qualifications?Play it when a student is reporting to the class or reading an essay on a controversial subject. Play it when a student offers a view that others find peculiar or even stupid. We understand nothing except in so far as we understand the questions behind it." 1. Integrating One's Thinking Having believed, doubted, and investigated further, students can now work at integrating their thinking. Definition by synonym (e) Definition by "word as word" (d, f) Definition by attitude (a, b, c) Definition by operation or by what is happening (c) Help students to understand that there are multiple ways of defining words, that each serves a different purpose. The First approached the Elephant, And happening to fall Against his broad and sturdy side, At once began to bawl: "God bless me! To me 'tis very clear This wonder of an Elephant Is very like a spear!Of course Thoreau's statements themselves are judgmental. Are the men incarcerated at Guantanamo Bay prisoners of war? Though each was partly in the right They all were in the wrong!Men generally...think that they ought to wait until they have persuaded the majority to alter them.The Frog Beyond the Fairy Tale Character: Searching Informational Texts (Gr.He tells his readers to break the law if it requires one to be "an agent of injustice." Both of the preceding sentences are factual. Then write another short paragraph, beginning this time with a judgmental statement about the essay with which you disagree but support with three reports." Unacceptable would be: "Isn't Thoreau just blaming the government? Have students play the believing game when a significant disagreement occurs in any class session. It encourages an understanding that there can be competing truths, each of which has some value; that, as Elbow writes, "Certainty is rarely if ever possible and we increase the likelihood of getting things wrong if we succumb to the hunger for it." "Knowing and questioning, of course, require one another. Why does the US government take too much time to remedy unjust laws? What would happen to our society if everyone who thought a law was unjust broke it? Do any questions require a strictly factual answer? Can you get information that enables you to answer with reasonable certainty? An English class can play the games with poems and novels; science classes can believe and doubt competing points of view on environmental issues; a mathematics class can do the same on the use of statistics to support differing opinions. The Blind Men and the Elephant by John Godfrey Saxe It was six men of Indostan To learning much inclined, Who went to see the Elephant (Though all of them were blind), That each by observation Might satisfy his mind. what have we here So very round and smooth and sharp?critical thinking lesson plans collegeBut it is the fault of the government itself that the remedy is worse than the evil. Why is it not more apt to anticipate and provide for reform? If the injustice..of such a nature that it requires you to be the agent of injustice to another, then, I say, break the law.Through repeated reading, students build a deep understanding of the text and critical thinking skills.However, students may struggle to think critically about the books they've read and take a position about events from those books.The subject is Thoreau's essay, "Civil Disobedience," written shortly after he was jailed for refusing to pay his poll tax, a protest against the U. We teachers are often better at stimulating exciting arguments than at complicating and deepening understandings; often better at developing critical thinking skills than at entering into another's point of view and working to experience it and find whatever truth it may contain.The teacher might introduce the believing game by making the following points to students: You have probably noticed that when we consider controversial issues like anti-terrorist legislation and its effects on civil liberties or the Israeli-Palestinian conflict or our own personal conflicts, what may start as a discussion quickly can become a debate.Teaching Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Lesson ideas from Pinterest.Thoreau's famous comment that "any man more right than his neighbor constitutes a majority of one already" includes a judgmental term, "more right," and what looks like a report, "a majority of one," but is a rather subtly stated opinion. 1-3) Close readings allow primary students to engage with complex texts.When discussion flags-and it may after a short time the first time students play the believing game - the teacher can interrupt and ask that they now work at formulating questions in the believing mode. What did they notice about other students' statements and questions? Conclusion: Students will probably have difficulty in their first experience with the believing game. A second could be to divide the class into groups, assigning each certain questions to be answered in a presentation to the class.In this lesson, students either listen to the instructor read a book aloud or read the book silently.The following resources look at the current state of critical thinking skills and provide ways to ensure our students continue to develop these skills in our courses and for their future careers."Beyond Critical Thinking", January 3, 2010 by Michael S.They defend their love of a television show or character with evidence or support that justifies their position.The doubting game begins with learning how to ask and to analyze questions. What was their opinion before they began the study? " The Fifth, who chanced to touch the ear, Said, "E'en the blindest man Can tell what this resembles most; Deny the fact who can, This marvel of an Elephant Is very like a fan!"Best," in this context, means the one that will be most useful in considering whether it would be right to break an "unjust law." Have each of the definitions chosen read to the class and the best one selected.Create a Great Future: STEM Career Research Using Close Reading (Gr. 9-12) Students are often asked to perform speeches, but rarely do we require students to analyze speeches as carefully as we study works of literature.Membership is required to view them all, but it's free to join. Developing Problem-Solving Skills A lesson plan from the NY Times.The teacher can begin by inviting student questions about it, questions, which if answered well, might lead to a better understanding of civil disobedience, questions that will test its worth. Are their answers to the questions any different now? If you want to know what a friend is, read the Biblical story of David and Jonathan. " And so these men of Indostan Disputed loud and long, Each in his own opinion Exceeding stiff and strong.Students need to discuss such matters and gain sophistication in distinguishing among different kinds of statements, an essential critical thinking ability. Students find out in this lesson in which they research real-life frogs.It is not words that have meanings but we who give them meanings. Ask students to read the following definitions of "friend" and then to determine into which of the categories below them each falls. What is "partly in the right" about each of the definitions of "friend" even if none is "in the wrong"? Student exercise Using each of the four ways of defining "friend," define "unjust law." Divide students into groups. critical thinking lesson plans college But what about such statements as, "Thoreau published 'Civil Disobedience' in 1840. These sentences are factual in form but are inaccurate. Overview From Theory to Practice Students take positions all the time.Problem Solving Lesson Plan Index Fourteen lessons for a variety of subjects and grade levels.Perhaps other members of the group can answer them. An acceptable one might be: "Can someone give me an example of an unjust law that ought to be broken"? Under some circumstances, playing the game may challenge deeply held beliefs and the security that goes with them. Entering into and really experiencing unfamiliar or irritating points of view takes time and effort. The next step is to analyze the questions to help students understand that: 1) clarity is vital; 2) questions are instruments of perception; the nature of a question helps to determine the nature of an answer; 3) some questions are better than others ("better," in this context, meaning more helpful in leading one to a fuller understanding of civil disobedience). In any of these assignments an important consideration will be the amount and difficulty of work required. Playing the doubting game is likely to have several byproducts: (1) The students will find that their questions often generate still other questions; (2) The process is likely to bring out not only information of the factual kind but also about attitudes and values. Like the believing game, the doubting game requires repeated experiences if students are to become good questioners and inquirers.If it was against the law to practice my religion, I think I would do it anyway, even if secretly." Unacceptable would be: "I think it makes more sense to try to change a law than to break it." 5. Do any questions call for the definition of any words* before they can be answered intelligently? If they are not, how might the question be reworded? One might be to assign common class readings bearing on the questions to be answered and then to discuss them with the class.Teachers may find one or more of them useful when a close examination of some aspect of the question process seems desirable.They will write an essay about its effectiveness and why it is still famous after all these years. Through close reading of a complex text, students’ independent reading abilities also increase. When answering these questions, students learn to reread and think deeply about the text.The words "unjust" in the first sentence and "injustice" in the second as well as his advice about breaking the law are judgmental. "What I have to do is to see, at any rate, that I do not lend myself to the wrong which I condemn.Current topics, local issues, and real-life situations are used to help students find meaning in the materials while learning the necessary critical thinking skills.The teacher can interrupt the session for ten minutes' worth of believing. A necessary complement to the believing game is the doubting game. Why did Thoreau think the war against Mexico was unjust? Have the students' experiences opened possibilities for finding some common ground on an issue? What does this mean for one's actions in a world where most social issues are complex and certainty about them is "rarely if ever possible"? " The Third approached the animal, And happening to take The squirming trunk within his hands, Thus boldly up and spake: "I see," quoth he, " the Elephant Is very like a snake!6-12) What if students could see the relevance of their school curriculum to real-world, interesting, STEM-related careers? In this unit, students are required to identify the rhetorical strategies in a famous speech and the specific purpose for each chosen device. 1-3) Complex texts promote deep thinking and critical analysis by students. 1-3) Teachers need to create text-dependent questions to elicit close reading.9-12) Students develop close reading skills connecting sound with sense in the poem “Those Winter Sundays,” and write an original text that reflects their new learning.They take too much time, and man's life will be gone....The following sentences raise still other issues: "Thoreau was jailed for opposing the war with Mexico." The verifiable fact is that he was jailed for refusing to pay the poll-tax, so the sentence, while a report, is factual in form but only partially accurate. The lesson may be followed by additional whole-class discussion sessions that place emphasis on dialogue, eventually transferring more and more responsibility to the students for their learning. These must aim at clarification and invite fuller understanding and acceptance. Did the experience affect their point of view, even if only slightly? It may seem artificial, perhaps uncomfortable, even threatening. Still another would be to assign questions to individual students. What help might they need in determining the relevance and reliability of evidence?The intellectual tradition of critical thinking Peter Elbow calls "methodological doubt," that is, "the systematic, disciplined, and conscious attempt to criticize everything no matter how compelling it might seem-to find flaws or contradictions we might otherwise miss." To complement methodological doubt, Elbow proposes "methodological belief," which he defines as "the equally systematic, disciplined, and conscious attempt to believe everything, no matter how unlikely or repellent it many seem-to find virtues or strengths we might otherwise miss." Together, these two processes offer us an opportunity to think rigorously without polarization and to embrace contradictions that normally divide us.Students need to recognize that the chosen definition is not the final word, that it limits the group in certain ways but at least allows them to talk about an "unjust law" from the point of view of a shared definition.An answer depends upon how one defines "prisoners of war," and people can and do disagree about them. Since people are the only sources of word meanings, there is no "real meaning" to be found. " For discussion: How does the poem suggest any problems of defining? critical thinking lesson plans college Reading the essay verifies that these are his views. Students take positions, then identify reasons to support their positions.Or, "I have a problem with what Thoreau calls 'being an agent of injustice to another.' Can anyone tell me what he means? The remainder of the period can be used to process the students' experiences. If methodological belief, almost certainly an unfamiliar process for students, is to take hold and have a chance to produce worthwhile results, students need to experience it with some frequency. But it invites listening, instead of arguing; it fosters empathy rather than antagonisms. The class should analyze their questions using the following criteria: a. These, too, can be worth further examination and discussion; (3) The teacher will also note what class work is necessary on a number of critical thinking skills. Experience with the two games need not focus only on current or historical issues.Starred items in the description of the doubting game refer to suggested lesson plans that follow the conclusion of the game.Problem Solving: Definition, Terminology, and Patterns A concise, informative essay. Big 6 Model Information and online resources for using this strategy.Critical Thinking Skills - Teaching students to think critically is espoused as one of the principle goals of higher education.In the second, the more familiar doubting game, we can ask probing questions, attack faulty logic, point out inadequate evidence, provide information that rebuts. Some of the answers will be factual; others will require facts and opinions, perhaps opinions of experts who know what it takes to get a law passed on campaign finance which students use problem-solving skills to address a real-world problem.Ask them to share their definitions and then to pick what they think is the best one.The inquiry-based lessons lead students to create testable questions; design and perform experiments; collect, organize, and analyze data; and use these results to decide on the next step in the scientific process."Unjust laws exist: shall we be content to obey them, or shall we endeavor to amend them, and obey them until we have succeeded, or shall we transgress them at once?A third step is to work toward judgment by integrating the insights gained by experiencing an idea from the inside and scrutinizing it from the outside. It can be useful to ask students to write a short paragraph as an initial record of their thinking on the issue to be considered-in this case, civil disobedience. Ask students to read or listen to the viewpoint they are to believe (in this case, the excerpt from "Civil Disobedience"). That, in turn, raises questions about experts and expertness: What makes a person an expert on a subject?Provided by Kenan Fellows Program This unit teaches students to utilize and develop critical thinking skills throughout most of the eighth grade science content strands.Using Tiered Companion Texts to Comprehend Complex Nonfiction Texts (Gr. 1-2) Through a close reading of Amelia Bedelia, students reread the material to discuss text-dependent questions, promoting deep thinking about the text and its characters.Roth, intellectual historian and president of Wesleyan University, explores the concept that guided by humanities, students will increase their ability to find ways of living that have both practical and sustaining meaning and direction."Critical Thinking in the Curriculum", July 7, 2011 by Donald Lazere, professor emeritus of English at Californian Polytechnic State University and currently at the University of Tennessee comments on the disciplinary and curricular context within which critical thinking and argumentation should be taught.Apply the class definition to one or more of the following laws that at least some people have regarded as unjust: the British tax on tea and other items in colonial days; the law allowing only white men to vote; the fugitive slave law; current laws on abortion, marijuana, the income tax. Assignment Keeping in mind the definition the class has agreed upon, answer the following question in one well-developed paragraph: If you regarded a law as unjust, would you break that law? In "Civil Disobedience" Thoreau states his belief that some laws are unjust. He wrote "Civil Disobedience," : Write a short paragraph beginning with a judgmental statement about "Civil Disobedience" with which you agree and support it with three reports.To help students understand the distinctions between reports (accurate, partially accurate and false) and judgments, the teacher might have them analyze readings and use such exercises as the following. Or perhaps: At one time in US history it was against the law to harbor a fugitive slave. If, as is likely, they disagree with Thoreau, they should ask themselves: What does he see that I don't? Students are to make only statements that support Thoreau. They are finding and speaking from places in themselves that honestly connect with him. " Tell students they should not make any negative or even challenging statements. How can you know if the person has any bias you should take into consideration as you examine the person's views? Having clarified the questions and determined which are most useful, the students can begin an inquiry.An excerpt from "Civil Disobedience" will be the take-off point for an outline of how the two games might be used with students as they study any controversial issue.3-5) Students progress through increasingly difficult tiered texts to gain the necessary background knowledge and problem-solving skills to comprehend complex nonfiction texts. Reading Informational Texts Using the 3-2-1 Strategy (K-2) Students can count on using the 3-2-1 strategy to help them successfully comprehend and write about an informational text. critical thinking lesson plans college They then evaluate the reasons and draw their own conclusions. Promoting critical thinking through dialogical-thinking reading lessons. critical thinking lesson plans college

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