Car accident problem solution essay - essays on citizenship


 

Manage



 
 

Search

 
 
 

News

 

Comments

car accident problem solution essay

car accident problem solution essayCar accident problem solution essay -Five weeks before the Clairoux attack, Café’s three dogs got loose and attacked a sixteen-year-old boy and his four-year-old half brother while they were ice skating.And they don’t look like basketball players; they don’t come in predictable shapes and sizes. “We have a policy against racial profiling,” Raymond Kelly, New York City’s police commissioner, told me. Thus the Ontario ban prohibits not only these three breeds but any “dog that has an appearance and physical characteristics that are substantially similar” to theirs; the term of art is “pit bull-type” dogs. Is a cross between an American pit bull terrier and a golden retriever a pit bull-type dog or a golden retriever-type dog?Muslims are not like the Amish: they don’t come dressed in identifiable costumes. They wanted to look like they were part of the American dream. Could a terrorist dress up as a Hasidic Jew and walk into the subway, and not be profiled? The name refers to dogs belonging to a number of related breeds, such as the American Staffordshire terrier, the Staffordshire bull terrier, and the American pit bull terrier—all of which share a square and muscular body, a short snout, and a sleek, short-haired coat.You’ll find nothing here about race or gender or ethnicity, and nothing here about expensive jewelry or deplaning at the middle or the end, or walking briskly or walking aimlessly.Behind each generalization is a choice of what factors to leave in and what factors to leave out, and those choices can prove surprisingly complicated.The law professor David Cole once tallied up some of the traits that Drug Enforcement Administration agents have used over the years in making generalizations about suspected smugglers. A way of making sense of the list, though, is to think of it as a catalogue of unstable traits.Kelly removed all the unstable generalizations, forcing customs officers to make generalizations about things that don’t change from one day or one month to the next.But it could also have chosen to generalize about powerful dogs, or about the kinds of people who own powerful dogs, or about small children, or about back-yard fences—or, indeed, about any number of other things to do with dogs and people and places.Some of these reasons for suspicion are plainly absurd, suggesting that there’s no particular rationale to the generalizations used by D. It doesn’t work to generalize about a relationship between a category and a trait when that relationship isn’t stable—or when the act of generalizing may itself change the basis of the generalization.The strongest connection of all, though, is between the trait of dog viciousness and certain kinds of dog owners.It’s not old Shep sleeping by the fire who suddenly goes bonkers.How do we know when we’ve made the right generalization? In July of last year, following the transit bombings in London, the New York City Police Department announced that it would send officers into the subways to conduct random searches of passengers’ bags.The best data we have on breed dangerousness are fatal dog bites, which serve as a useful indicator of just how much havoc certain kinds of dogs are causing.Figuring out what an Islamic terrorist looks like isn’t any easier. Pit-bull bans involve a category problem, too, because pit bulls, as it happens, aren’t a single breed.He began hitting one of the dogs over the head, until the stick broke. Most dogs fight as a last resort, when staring and growling fail.Before Kelly became the New York police commissioner, he served as the head of the U. Customs Service, and while he was there he overhauled the criteria that border-control officers use to identify and search suspected smugglers.Jayden Clairoux was attacked by Jada, a pit-bull terrier, and her two pit-bull–bullmastiff puppies, Agua and Akasha.She and Clairoux came running, and he punched the first of the dogs in the head, until it dropped Jayden, and then he threw the boy toward his mother.A handler takes a dog on a six-foot lead and judges its reaction to stimuli such as gunshots, an umbrella opening, and a weirdly dressed stranger approaching in a threatening way. “Their stability and resoluteness make them excellent for work with people who might not like a more bouncy, flibbertigibbet sort of dog. More police means that some crimes are prevented, others are more easily solved, and still others are displaced—pushed out of the troubled neighborhood—which Kelly says is a good thing, because it disrupts the patterns and practices and social networks that serve as the basis for lawbreaking.A pit bull is dangerous to people, then, not to the extent that it expresses its essential pit bullness but to the extent that it deviates from it. One of the puzzling things about New York City is that, after the enormous and well-publicized reductions in crime in the mid-nineteen-nineties, the crime rate has continued to fall. By contrast, the generalization that New York City is a crime-ridden place was once true and now, manifestly, isn’t.car accident problem solution essay“It is usually a perfect storm of bad human-canine interactions—the wrong dog, the wrong background, the wrong history in the hands of the wrong person in the wrong environmental situation.As the legal scholar Frederick Schauer has observed, “painting with a broad brush” is “an often inevitable and frequently desirable dimension of our decision-making lives.” Another word for generalization, though, is “stereotype,” and stereotypes are usually not considered desirable dimensions of our decision-making lives.After Kelly’s reforms, the number of searches conducted by the Customs Service dropped by about seventy-five per cent, but the number of successful seizures improved by twenty-five per cent.That’s why those kinds of inferences are more reliable than the ones based on whether smugglers are white or black, or carry one bag or two.A pit bull is willing to fight with little or no provocation.“The dog had his head in its mouth and started to do this shake,” Clairoux’s wife, Jo Ann Hartley, said later.The breeds were scattered: German shepherds, Akitas, and Chow Chows were among those most heavily represented.“We have tested somewhere around a thousand pit-bull-type dogs,” Carl Herkstroeter, the president of the A. And, because they are fearless, they can be gentle with anybody.” Then which are the pit bulls that get into trouble? “We took two-thirds of our graduating class and linked them with experienced officers, and focussed on those areas,” Kelly said. Why, for instance, is it a useful rule of thumb that Kenyans are good distance runners?Eighty-four per cent of the pit bulls that have been given the test have passed, which ranks pit bulls ahead of beagles, Airedales, bearded collies, and all but one variety of dachshund. When pit bulls set out to provide comfort, they are as resolute as they are when they fight, but what they are resolute about is being gentle. has done, under Commissioner Kelly, is to use the map to establish “impact zones,” and to direct newly graduated officers—who used to be distributed proportionally to precincts across the city—to these zones, in some cases doubling the number of officers in the immediate neighborhood. In other words, the relation between New York City (a category) and criminality (a trait) is unstable, and this kind of instability is another way in which our generalizations can be derailed.“For example, dogs not bred for fighting usually display defeat in combat by rolling over and exposing a light underside. When we say that pit bulls are dangerous, we are making a generalization, just as insurance companies use generalizations when they charge young men more for car insurance than the rest of us (even though many young men are perfectly good drivers), and doctors use generalizations when they tell overweight middle-aged men to get their cholesterol checked (even though many overweight middle-aged men won’t experience heart trouble).Has contraband been found that implicates this person?A 1991 study in Denver, for example, compared a hundred and seventy-eight dogs with a history of biting people with a random sample of a hundred and seventy-eight dogs with no history of biting.To go by “The Godfather,” mafiosi look like white men of European descent, which, as generalizations go, isn’t terribly helpful.The one thing that doesn’t change is the total number of the people killed by dogs. and one of the country’s leading dogbite experts, told me.Pit bulls seem to have a high tolerance for pain, making it possible for them to fight to the point of exhaustion.It could just be a sign that pit bulls have become more numerous. When I first started looking at fatal dog attacks, they largely involved dogs like German shepherds and shepherd mixes and St.“Cover your neck, cover your neck.” A neighbor, sitting by her window, screamed for help. The dogs were pulled away, and the Clairouxes and one of the rescuers were taken to the hospital.“I put it in here in March of the first year I was here. If thinking about muscular terriers as pit bulls is a generalization, then thinking about dangerous dogs as anything substantially similar to a pit bull is a generalization about a generalization.For instance, in the period from 1981 to 1982 fatalities were caused by five pit bulls, three mixed breeds, two St.In “The Godfather,” where most of us get our knowledge of the Mafia, the male members of the Corleone family were played by Marlon Brando, who was of Irish and French ancestry, James Caan, who is Jewish, and two Italian-Americans, Al Pacino and John Cazale. car accident problem solution essay When we have more problems with pit bulls, it’s not necessarily a sign that pit bulls are more dangerous than other dogs. “And there’s always one or two deaths attributable to malamutes or huskies, although you never hear people clamoring for a ban on those breeds.They don’t necessarily even know that children are small human beings.“The ones that the legislation is geared toward have aggressive tendencies that are either bred in by the breeder, trained in by the trainer, or reinforced in by the owner,” Herkstroeter says. “Well, what has happened is that over time we have averaged about a thirty-five-per-cent crime reduction in impact zones.” For years, experts have maintained that the incidence of violent crime is “inelastic” relative to police presence—that people commit serious crimes because of poverty and psychopathology and cultural dysfunction, along with spontaneous motives and opportunities. It’s not just that it’s statistically supportable today.The junk-yard German shepherd—which looks as if it would rip your throat out—and the German-shepherd guide dog are the same breed.I’ve been involved in many legal cases involving fatal dog attacks, and, certainly, it’s my impression that these are generally cases where everyone is to blame.In about a quarter of fatal dog-bite cases, the dog owners were previously involved in illegal fighting.Pit-bull breeds led the pack, but the variability from year to year is considerable.Usually there are all kinds of other warning signs.” 6.Some percentage of smugglers will always be nervous, will always get their story wrong, and will always be caught by the dogs.Hartley fell on her son, protecting him with her body. ” Clairoux cried out, as all three dogs descended on his wife.“About twenty per cent of the dogs involved in fatalities were chained at the time, and had a history of long-term chaining,” Lockwood said.They tend to see them as prey.” In many cases, vicious dogs are hungry or in need of medical attention.The process of moving from the specific to the general is both necessary and perilous.The supposedly troublesome characteristics of the pit-bull type—its gameness, its determination, its insensitivity to pain—are chiefly directed toward other dogs. On the contrary: a dog that went after spectators, or its handler, or the trainer, or any of the other people involved in making a dogfighting dog a good dogfighter was usually put down. They are very good with children.” It can even be argued that the same traits that make the pit bull so aggressive toward other dogs are what make it so nice to humans.After the attack on Jayden Clairoux, the Ontario government chose to make a generalization about pit bulls.Just as we have always known what Mafiosi look like—even as we understand that only an infinitesimal fraction of Italian-Americans are members of the mob.” But wait: do we really know what mafiosi look like?On a list of two hundred and forty cities in the United States with a population of a hundred thousand or more, New York City now ranks two hundred-and-twenty-second in crime, down near the bottom with Fontana, California, and Port St. In the nineteen-nineties, the crime decrease was attributed to big obvious changes in city life and government—the decline of the drug trade, the gentrification of Brooklyn, the successful implementation of “broken windows” policing. The instability issue is a problem for profiling in law enforcement as well.But “pit bullness” turns out to be elusive as well.Whereas guard dogs like German shepherds usually attempt to restrain those they perceive to be threats by biting and holding, pit bulls try to inflict the maximum amount of damage on an opponent. They don’t growl or assume an aggressive facial expression as warning. “They are often insensitive to behaviors that usually stop aggression,” one scientific review of the breed states. Meanwhile, Dobermans and Great Danes and German shepherds and Rottweilers are frequent biters as well, and the dog that recently mauled a Frenchwoman so badly that she was given the world’s first face transplant was, of all things, a Labrador retriever.If you wanted a mean dog, back then, you got a Doberman. car accident problem solution essay (The rule in the pit-bull world was “Man-eaters die.”) A Georgia-based group called the American Temperament Test Society has put twenty-five thousand dogs through a ten-part standardized drill designed to assess a dog’s stability, shyness, aggressiveness, and friendliness in the company of people. And of the number I’ve tested I have disqualified one pit bull because of aggressive tendencies. “There are a lot of pit bulls these days who are licensed therapy dogs,” the writer Vicki Hearne points out.In other words, you can predict with a fair degree of certainty what an Al Qaeda terrorist looks like.A neighborhood boy grabbed his hockey stick and threw it to Gauthier. “Just as we wouldn’t let a great white shark in a swimming pool,” the province’s attorney general, Michael Bryant, had said, “maybe we shouldn’t have these animals on the civilized streets.” Pit bulls, descendants of the bulldogs used in the nineteenth century for bull baiting and dogfighting, have been bred for “gameness,” and thus a lowered inhibition to aggression.Here is a sample: Arrived late at night; arrived early in the morning; arrived in afternoon; one of the first to deplane; one of the last to deplane; deplaned in the middle; purchased ticket at the airport; made reservation on short notice; bought coach ticket; bought first-class ticket; used one-way ticket; used round-trip ticket; paid for ticket with cash; paid for ticket with small denomination currency; paid for ticket with large denomination currency; made local telephone calls after deplaning; made long distance telephone call after deplaning; pretended to make telephone call; traveled from New York to Los Angeles; traveled to Houston; carried no luggage; carried brand-new luggage; carried a small bag; carried a medium-sized bag; carried two bulky garment bags; carried two heavy suitcases; carried four pieces of luggage; overly protective of luggage; disassociated self from luggage; traveled alone; traveled with a companion; acted too nervous; acted too calm; made eye contact with officer; avoided making eye contact with officer; wore expensive clothing and jewelry; dressed casually; went to restroom after deplaning; walked rapidly through airport; walked slowly through airport; walked aimlessly through airport; left airport by taxi; left airport by limousine; left airport by private car; left airport by hotel courtesy van. Smugglers may once have tended to buy one-way tickets in cash and carry two bulky suitcases. They can easily switch to round-trip tickets bought with a credit card, or a single carry-on bag, without losing their capacity to smuggle. Maybe the reason some of them switched from one-way tickets and two bulky suitcases was that law enforcement got wise to those habits, so the smugglers did the equivalent of what the jihadis seemed to have done in London, when they switched to East Africans because the scrutiny of young Arab and Pakistani men grew too intense.On several occasions, pit bulls have been reported to disembowel dogs offering this signal of submission.” In epidemiological studies of dog bites, the pit bull is overrepresented among dogs known to have seriously injured or killed human beings, and, as a result, pit bulls have been banned or restricted in several Western European countries, China, and numerous cities and municipalities across North America. Because we don’t know which dog will bite someone or who will have a heart attack or which drivers will get in an accident, we can make predictions only by generalizing.If you look at the London bombings, you have three British citizens of Pakistani descent. You have the next crew, on July 21st, who are East African. Forty per cent of New Yorkers are born outside the country. But, for that process to work, you have to be able both to define and to identify the category you are generalizing about. “And for most people it just means big, nasty, scary dog that bites.” The goal of pit-bull bans, obviously, isn’t to prohibit dogs that look like pit bulls.“We made them more efficient and more effective at what they were doing,” Kelly said. Does the notion of a pit-bull menace rest on a stable or an unstable generalization?It’s the wrong thing to do, and it’s also ineffective. ” Kelly was pointing out what might be called profiling’s “category problem.” Generalizations involve matching a category of people to a behavior or trait—overweight middle-aged men to heart-attack risk, young men to bad driving. “The way a lot of these laws are written, pit bulls are whatever they say they are,” Lora Brashears, a kennel manager in Pennsylvania, says.As she watched in horror, two more pit bulls jumped over the fence, joining in the assault.Between the late nineteen-seventies and the late nineteen-nineties, more than twenty-five breeds were involved in fatal attacks in the United States.There had been a list of forty-three suspicious traits. Is there something suspicious about their physical appearance? Is there specific intelligence targeting this person? Is there something amiss in their paperwork or explanations?But what if generalizing from other traits—such as high blood pressure, family history, and smoking—saved more lives?A pit-bull ban is a generalization about a generalization about a trait that is not, in fact, general. In the past two years, for instance, murder in New York has declined by almost ten per cent, rape by twelve per cent, and burglary by more than eighteen per cent. People who moved to sunny retirement communities like Port St.A mean pit bull is a dog that has been turned mean, by selective breeding, by being cross-bred with a bigger, human-aggressive breed like German shepherds or Rottweilers, or by being conditioned in such a way that it begins to express hostility to human beings. has a computerized map showing, in real time, precisely where serious crimes are being reported, and at any moment the map typically shows a few dozen constantly shifting high-crime hot spots, some as small as two or three blocks square. The presence of a few extra officers down the block, it was thought, wouldn’t make much difference. It’s that it has been true for almost half a century, and that in Kenya the tradition of distance running is sufficiently rooted that something cataclysmic would have to happen to dislodge it.The boys beat back the animals with a snow shovel and escaped into a neighbor’s house.Café was fined, and he moved the dogs to his seventeen-year-old girlfriend’s house.You’ve got the unsupervised three-year-old child wandering in the neighborhood killed by a starved, abused dog owned by the dogfighting boyfriend of some woman who doesn’t know where her child is.You have a Chechen woman in Moscow in early 2004 who blows herself up in the subway station. “You think that terrorists aren’t aware of how easy it is to be characterized by ethnicity? The pit-bull appearance is a proxy for the pit-bull temperament—for some trait that these dogs share.Bernards, two German-shepherd mixes, a pure-bred German shepherd, a husky type, a Doberman, a Chow Chow, a Great Dane, a wolf-dog hybrid, a husky mix, and a pit-bull mix—but no Rottweilers.The biters were 6.2 times as likely to be male than female, and 2.6 times as likely to be intact than neutered. car accident problem solution essay Muslims are not like the Amish: they don’t come dressed in identifiable costumes. They wanted to look like they were part of the American dream. Could a terrorist dress up as a Hasidic Jew and walk into the subway, and not be profiled? The name refers to dogs belonging to a number of related breeds, such as the American Staffordshire terrier, the Staffordshire bull terrier, and the American pit bull terrier—all of which share a square and muscular body, a short snout, and a sleek, short-haired coat. car accident problem solution essay




Status: FreeWare
OS: Windows|Mac OS
Autors 466
Update: 26-Nov-2017 18:05
Cat: Home »