Essay imperialism ww1 - essays on citizenship









essay imperialism ww1

essay imperialism ww1Essay imperialism ww1 -When, rather late in the period of European colonial expansion, Europeans turned to Africa to satisfy their greed for resources, prestige, and empire, they quickly worked their way into African societies to gain allies and proxies, and to co-opt the conquered kings and chiefs, all to further their exploits.Samory's legacy remains controversial, yet he is a significant example of pragmatic resistance for the ways in which he contended with French aggression.Many Americans saw US involvement in WWI as a waste of time.After the Berlin Conference of 1884–85, at which the most powerful European countries agreed upon rules for laying claim to particular African territories, the British, French, Germans, Italians, Spanish, Belgians, and Portuguese set about formally implementing strategies for the long-term occupation and control of Africa.The war to make the world safe for democracy [also known as the war to end all wars] had not made the world safe for democracy, nor had it ended wars.…I have told you that I am fully in favor of peace and that I shall never be the one breaking such peace. The responsibility for the innocent blood of my men and yours therefore cannot be mine since I am not the instigator of another war... At the same time, the larger picture of European colonial rule and its implications were not always readily apparent; nor could they have been.Initially, Witbooi and the Nama were allies of the Germans against the Herero.In the aftermath of their conquest of the Nama and Herero, the Germans waged a war of extermination.Some twenty conflicts of varying dimensions were being waged in various parts of the world.The British succeeded in playing the Ndebele and neighboring Mashona against each other, and this, combined with the spread of smallpox, placed the Ndebele at a severe disadvantage.The complexity of Africans' political relationships among themselves, then, influenced the nature of their resistance to colonial rule.All the industrial nations were in open competition to develop vast empires that would provide them with the fuel to run the factories of industrialism.But after the Berlin Conference it became more systematic and overt.The result was a disillusionment with world affairs.There was much bitterness because so many of our cattle were branded and taken away from us; we had no property, nothing we could call our own.Lobengula believed that he had extended only mineral rights to the diamond magnate; Rhodes argued that the entire territory had become his personal fiefdom, and gave his name to the territory: Rhodesia.There was, moreover, no broadly accepted African identity to unite around during this period.Adding to the complexity was the fact that rapid European imperial expansion in Africa did not necessarily change relationships among African communities.When the war ended many Americans saw a Europe that had changed little. America had walked into the ring of international diplomacy and affairs and received a bloody nose for our efforts.By 1911 the population of the Herero had declined by four-fifths in ten years, and there were half as many living Nama.essay imperialism ww1Wilson considered this a great failure and it plagued him until his death.It was also possible to limit European political control through some form of collaboration with European generals or colonial administrators.Political and economic competition with neighboring communities remained the highest priority, particularly when the European presence appeared to be an economic and political advantage.Between 18 in Algeria, Islam became another source of unity, as Abd al-Qadir led his resistance against the French.As they resisted European invasions, they confronted both European and African soldiers.From the very beginning it was not particularly popular.While African resistance to European colonialism is often thought of in terms of a white and black/European and African power struggle, this presumption underestimates the complex and strategic thinking that Africans commonly employed to address the challenges of European colonial rule.This imperialist competition led to tension and the creation of vast armies.Some form of resistance, moreover, remained constant during the period of formal European political dominance.Ethiopia's history and political structure fostered a broad-based, unified military response to the Italian invasion.In fact, by 1885 Western Europeans had mastered the art of divide, conquer, and rule, honing their skills over four hundred years of imperialism and exploitation in the Americas, Asia, and the Pacific.He manufactured firearms, relocated his kingdom, and engaged in diplomacy with both the French and the British.What were the five reasons the United States entered World War I? German Dictatorship - "Make the World safe for Democracy." - Cultural ties 4. Wilson campaigned vigorously and gave 37 speeches in 29 cities in a span of only three weeks.Hendrik Witbooi, a Nama chief and early Germany ally against the neighboring Herero, in what is now Namibia, illustrates shifting European allegiances and the strategies that placed Africans at a distinct disadvantage.Ndansi Kumalo, a Ndebele chief and a subject of Lobengula, the Ndebele king, described the events that took place between 18 when Cecil Rhodes and Lobengula disagreed about the terms of the treaty signed in 1888.I fully agree with you in one thing: in comparison with you, we are nothing here. Despite Witbooi's pleas, the Germans defeated the Nama and the Herero.Everywhere one found a strong impulse to return to old isolationist ways.But after the Germans asserted increased control over the region, in 1901, Witbooi revolted and joined with the Herero to resist them.Each time the French attacked his territory or the trade routes and goldfields at the heart of his economy, he mounted a series of successful counterattacks, until he was captured by the French, dying in exile in 1900.Ethiopia stands alone, however, as the one African society to successfully defend itself against an invading European army and remain free of direct European political domination. essay imperialism ww1 The strongest identities were communal and, to a lesser extent, religious, which begins to explain the presence of African participants in European conquests of other African societies.That is, they confronted a political hierarchy imposed by Western Europeans that included African proxies.Back to top In other territories conflicts among African societies hindered the effectiveness of their resistance.Back to top Not all resistance during the early years of European colonial rule took the form of pragmatic violence.Particularly in British territories, Africans commonly used local movements to resist European colonial policies or practices by the colonial administrations' African proxies.But for the Maxims, it would have been different." In a longer passage of which this quote is a part, we witness not only the overwhelming effects of European military technology, but also the tensions existing within African societies that inhibited their ability to withstand European incursions.In March 1920 the US Senate finally killed the treaty.Menelik II, emperor of Ethiopia, led his army to accomplish this unique feat in March 1896, defeating General Oreste Baratieri's Italian army and its Eritrean allies at the Battle of Adwa.A - Anarchy: There was no international organization to help them deal with their problems. Just look at the system they set up...quite poor indeed. Business Interests - US trade w/ the allies increased from 825 million in 1914 to 3.2 billion in 1916. Zimmerman Note - Germany asked Mexico to enter the war against the US. Henry Cabot Lodge and Alfred Beveridge strongly denounced the treaty, especially Article Ten which called upon the US to support League actions.Since you have the guns, you force the right on your side.Much to the detriment of African societies, the enmity between them often fostered alliances between Africans and Europeans against a common African enemy.In the 1880s, for example, in what is today Zimbabwe, the British used existing disputes between the Ndebele and neighboring communities to foment a conflict in which the British would have to intervene and would ultimately gain a position to claim control over Ndebele land.Despite these seeming contradictions, it remains insufficient to speak of African responses to the imposition of colonial rule as a choice between either collaboration or resistance.They came and were overbearing and we were ordered to carry their clothes and bundles.Consequently, the African responses to this process, particularly the ways in which they resisted it, were complex.Ethiopians rallied around Menelik II and took pride in the kingdom's glorious history.Those who survived hunger, thirst, and exhaustion were placed in concentration camps that foreshadowed the death camps of Nazi Germany.The industrial era created a perceived need in America for raw materials and markets for goods.Those in conflict with one another tended to remain in conflict, despite the impending threat from the French, British, Germans, and other powers.Witbooi, never failing to inspire tenacious defense of the Nama, was killed in an attack against a German column. essay imperialism ww1 The willingness to use these armies was known as militarism.We said, "It is not good living under such conditions; death would be better—let us fight." We knew that we had very little chance because their weapons were so much superior to ours.I shall do so not so much in my own name but in the name of the Lord. In 1905 he was killed leading a charge against a German column.His health had been poor for sic months and the strain of the trip was too much.The British attacked, the Ndebele surrendered, and the British imposed Africans from a different territory to police the Ndebele.The power was European, but the face of it on the local level was often African.In order to feel safe (there was a pretty fair degree of paranoia as you can imagine) nations began to sign secret treaties forming alliances and Europe was divided into an armed camp.The United States did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles and we did not join the League of Nations.The industrial era had many effects, not the least of which was plunging the world into world war.…I guess this time I shall be forced to defend myself against you. But Witbooi rose again, at the age of eighty, to fight once more.After a dramatic speech in Colorado Wilson collapsed.Wilson's inspiring leadership had keyed the American people to a spirit of self sacrifice that had even resulted in the prohibition of alcoholic beverages. Victory had brought an emotional letdown - "the slump of idealism." It had also brought a profound disillusionment with the imperialistic and bickering Allies.Yet they managed to kill enough British soldiers to force them to retreat.Like Menelik II, Samory Touré, who created a large Mandinka empire in West Africa between the 1860s and the 1890s, was an inspiring political and military leader, but in the French he faced a far more capable, tenacious, and experienced adversary than Menelik had in the Italians.One must consider the relationship between eras and events as a student of history.In addition, the centuries of extremely violent, protracted warfare among themselves, combined with the technological advances of the Industrial Revolution, produced unmatched military might.M - Militarism: Nations built huge armies to defend themselves and help to gain these empires. When the war ended he wanted these included in the treaty of Versailles.For the next year and a half he was incapable of running the government but was protected by his wife and closest advisors.The United States was not alone in this desire for expansion.N - Nationalism: There were intense feelings of nationalism on the part of subjugated nationalities. I - Imperialism: Competition to develop vast empires caused tension and conflict. essay imperialism ww1 Many Americans saw US involvement in WWI as a waste of time. essay imperialism ww1

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